Sunday, January 19, 2020

The National Debt :: essays research papers

The National Debt   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For the past centuries, the american people dug themselves into a big hole which is the National Debt. In this paper I will discuss the history of the national debt, effects on the debt/deficit, wais to reduce it and control the deficit. the national debt has increased every year from 1945 to 1995. The biggest increase of the debt was from the years 1985 to 1995 whwn it went up about three trillion dollars. Right after the Civil War the debt held at three billion dollars. In 1900, this debt of three million dollars had decreased to one million dollars. In 1919, at the end of the World War 1, the debt skyrocketed to 25.5 billion. When the Wall Street fell apart in 1929, the United States fell into something that was called the Great Depression. It started in 1930 and lasted until 1940. During this depression, President Franklin Roosevelt came in. He brought in projects known as Entitlements. Some of them were known as; WPA. TVA. and CCC. Then social welfare was born and social security began. This is what put our country into debt. Then came war, the end of the depression, and the Eisenhower times.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The debt kept on growing so new president Lyndon Johnson developed new social welfare programs- Medicare, and Medicaid. The U.S. Government came up with the gold standard and stopped minting silver coins. The coins were then made from scrap pieces of metal and the cash became paper. Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford passed the debt and added to it. The first sign of bankruptcy occured during the Jimmy Carter Presidency. Inflation skyrocketed and interest rates fluttered near 20%. President Ronald Reagan made the economy act better, temporarily. To make the economy better, Reagan invented something called a credit spree. A credit spree in my opinion is when we go out and buy everything, but we put in on a charge (spending money we dont have.) The government cut taxes and increased spending. The deficit exploded, but the american people were happy using a credit card and charging everything. Republicans began using accounts about â€Å"supply side† and â€Å"trickle down† economics. â€Å"Corporate welfare prospered again, financed by more debt. â€Å"Between the years 1980 and 1990, the national debt quadrupled. In 1980, it was at approximately eight hundred billion dollars. Now it's five trillion dollars and increasing rapidly.† To worsen matters republican presidential nominee, Bob Dole says that he wants to

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Reporting Practices and Ethics Paper

Planning is when the financial manager identifies the steps that must be taken to accomplish the organization’s objectives. The purpose is to identify objectives and then to identify the steps required for accomplishing these objectives. Controlling is when the financial manager makes sure that each area of the organization is following the plans that have been established. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that plans are being followed.Organizing is when the financial manager decides how to use the resources of the organization to most effectively carry out the plans that have been established. Directing is when the manager works on a day-to-day basis to keep the results of the organizing running efficiently. The purpose is to ensure effective resource use and provide daily supervision. Decision making is when the financial manger makes choices among available alternatives. Decision making actually occurs parallel to planning, organizing, and controlling.All types of de cision making rely on information, and the primary tasks are analysis and evaluation. The purpose is to make informed choices (Baker and Baker, 2001). Summary of generally accepted accounting principles and general financial ethical standards Most healthcare organizations operate on the accrual accounting basis. With this type of accounting; revenue is recorded when it is earned-not when payment is received; and expenses are recorded when they are incurred-not when they are paid.Ethical decision making is required when the healthcare executive must balance the needs and interests of the individual, the organization and society. Those involved in the decision making process must consider ethical principles such as justice, autonomy, beneficence and fairness, as well as professional ethical standards and codes. Physicians, nurses, and other caregivers may primarily address ethical issues on a case-by-case basis. Healthcare executives also have a responsibility to address those issues at broader organization, community, and social levels ACHE, 2007). Examples from articles that reflect ethical standards of conduct and financial reporting practices. Explain significance of each example. In May 2004, Larry J. Tyler wrote in an article that financial managers need to keep their own personal finances in order. If a financial manager is living too close to the edge on his/her own finances or are in fear of losing their job, and then they are more likely to â€Å"bend† their convictions (Tyler, 2004).The importance of this example is so financial managers do not â€Å"fix† the books to make the organization look better than it actually is. If someone thinks that their job is on the line, they are more likely to do what others want them to do as well. In an article written by Joe Batte, a healthcare compliance specialist, he reported that state and federal agencies are increasing their efforts to eliminate fraud and abuse in healthcare.Batte defines fraud as: Knowingly and willfully executing or attempting to execute, a scheme or artifice to defraud any health care benefit program. Or to obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody of, or control of, any health care benefit program. Batte defines abuse as: Abuse is defined as receiving payment for items and service when there is no legal entitlement for that payment and the provider has not knowingly or intentionally misrepresented the facts to obtain payment.Abuse may, directly or indirectly, result in unnecessary costs to the Medicare or Medicaid programs for services which fail to meet recognized standards of care, or that are medically unnecessary. Whether it’s abuse or fraud, the fact that a provider can lose everything through being excluded from state and Federal health care program’s participation makes it imperative to run the providers company in a professional, comp liant, and business-like fashion. It is also wise to know what is currently being done by the agencies that oversee our health care systems (Batte, Joseph R. 2001). In the articles above, knowledge of what can happen to someone, or the organization as a whole, will deter managers of falsifying financial reports. Education is key to any position, whether healthcare or another. Knowledge of the consequences will help keep managers on the straightened arrow. Conclusion It is incumbent upon healthcare executives to lead in a manner that sets an ethical tone for their organizations. Education in ethics is an important step in healthcare’s executives’ life-long commitment to high ethical conduct, both personally and professionally.In today’s more aggressive enforcement environment it pays to have an active compliance program in effect, make sure that documentation is complete and legible, and don’t assume that the small or medium sized provider is not going to be reviewed on a regular basis. The medical industry is held to a higher standard of ethics and many of the overseeing agencies are now using their considerable arsenal to make sure that fraud and abuse reduction is on everyone’s front burner. Reporting Practices and Ethics Paper Planning is when the financial manager identifies the steps that must be taken to accomplish the organization’s objectives. The purpose is to identify objectives and then to identify the steps required for accomplishing these objectives. Controlling is when the financial manager makes sure that each area of the organization is following the plans that have been established. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that plans are being followed.Organizing is when the financial manager decides how to use the resources of the organization to most effectively carry out the plans that have been established. Directing is when the manager works on a day-to-day basis to keep the results of the organizing running efficiently. The purpose is to ensure effective resource use and provide daily supervision. Decision making is when the financial manger makes choices among available alternatives. Decision making actually occurs parallel to planning, organizing, and controlling.All types of de cision making rely on information, and the primary tasks are analysis and evaluation. The purpose is to make informed choices (Baker and Baker, 2001). Summary of generally accepted accounting principles and general financial ethical standards Most healthcare organizations operate on the accrual accounting basis. With this type of accounting; revenue is recorded when it is earned-not when payment is received; and expenses are recorded when they are incurred-not when they are paid.Ethical decision making is required when the healthcare executive must balance the needs and interests of the individual, the organization and society. Those involved in the decision making process must consider ethical principles such as justice, autonomy, beneficence and fairness, as well as professional ethical standards and codes. Physicians, nurses, and other caregivers may primarily address ethical issues on a case-by-case basis. Healthcare executives also have a responsibility to address those issues at broader organization, community, and social levels ACHE, 2007). Examples from articles that reflect ethical standards of conduct and financial reporting practices. Explain significance of each example. In May 2004, Larry J. Tyler wrote in an article that financial managers need to keep their own personal finances in order. If a financial manager is living too close to the edge on his/her own finances or are in fear of losing their job, and then they are more likely to â€Å"bend† their convictions (Tyler, 2004).The importance of this example is so financial managers do not â€Å"fix† the books to make the organization look better than it actually is. If someone thinks that their job is on the line, they are more likely to do what others want them to do as well. In an article written by Joe Batte, a healthcare compliance specialist, he reported that state and federal agencies are increasing their efforts to eliminate fraud and abuse in healthcare.Batte defines fraud as: Knowingly and willfully executing or attempting to execute, a scheme or artifice to defraud any health care benefit program. Or to obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody of, or control of, any health care benefit program. Batte defines abuse as: Abuse is defined as receiving payment for items and service when there is no legal entitlement for that payment and the provider has not knowingly or intentionally misrepresented the facts to obtain payment.Abuse may, directly or indirectly, result in unnecessary costs to the Medicare or Medicaid programs for services which fail to meet recognized standards of care, or that are medically unnecessary. Whether it’s abuse or fraud, the fact that a provider can lose everything through being excluded from state and Federal health care program’s participation makes it imperative to run the providers company in a professional, comp liant, and business-like fashion. It is also wise to know what is currently being done by the agencies that oversee our health care systems (Batte, Joseph R. 2001). In the articles above, knowledge of what can happen to someone, or the organization as a whole, will deter managers of falsifying financial reports. Education is key to any position, whether healthcare or another. Knowledge of the consequences will help keep managers on the straightened arrow. Conclusion It is incumbent upon healthcare executives to lead in a manner that sets an ethical tone for their organizations. Education in ethics is an important step in healthcare’s executives’ life-long commitment to high ethical conduct, both personally and professionally.In today’s more aggressive enforcement environment it pays to have an active compliance program in effect, make sure that documentation is complete and legible, and don’t assume that the small or medium sized provider is not going to be reviewed on a regular basis. The medical industry is held to a higher standard of ethics and many of the overseeing agencies are now using their considerable arsenal to make sure that fraud and abuse reduction is on everyone’s front burner.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Evolution Of Formal Personality Theory - 3340 Words

The history of formal personality theory began with Sigmund Freud, was then confronted by Carl Jung, and continued to evolve from then on, encompassing cultural, gender, and identity issues. The early theorists concentrated on predominant concepts that struggled to account for every stage of development and explore into the depths of the human mind. Freud’s impact is so pervasive, his theory remains the foundational work for the study of personality all across the charts. Theorists Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Eric Erikson whom all embodied Freud’s concepts, along with multiple other theorists who followed, are all also significant forerunners whose philosophies are just as correspondingly innovative. This paper will trace the progression of personality theory from Freud to Jung and beyond, and then examine the possible influences of technology and social media on personality development in the 21st century. Think back to yourself when you were a lot younger, at 11, 14 or 18 years old. Think about your appearance, your fashion sense, and your braces. Think about the music you listened to and the weird things you your friends would say. If you’re like most people you’ll probably cringe. You know that that goofy 14 year old in your memory is you and no one else, but damn, it’s so strange to imagine yourself as almost a different person; thinking/feeling/perceiving the world not at all how you do now. It’s actually embarrassing to realize that this younger, unfamiliarShow MoreRelatedBiological Psychology1169 Words   |  5 Pagesis the field of psychology which studies the physical basis of psychological phenomena. In the formal study of biological psychology, there was said to be a strict and codependent relationship between genetics and the outcome of a person’s personality, (Richardson, R. D. 2006). Pioneers such as Charles Darwin, William James, and William Sheldon have been credited with defining biopsychology as a formal study. History of Biological Psychology Biological psychology, which is also known as behavioralRead MoreThe Effects Of Clinical Depression On An Individual s Dreaming1485 Words   |  6 PagesThere is never ending research in the field of dreaming. Social scientists and psychologists are so keen to delve into the workings of the unconscious brain, resulting in countless breakthroughs and theories as to why and how we dream. There is an article about the effect of clinical depression on an individual’s dreaming. It has been found that people suffering from depression dream three times more than those without depression. This is due to the higher levels of emotional arousal to get out ofRead MoreThe Trait Based Perspective For Situational Variance1541 Words   |  7 Pagescompetence as being associated with an effective leader (Derue et. al, 2001). Bass (2008) described competence as having the capability that an individual brings to a situation While the behavioral paradigm severed for the basis of a new leadership theory, meta-analytic studies revealed that the behaviors of leaders are important for predicting leadership effectiveness (Derue et. al, 2001). In contrast, Zaccaro (2007) stated that while a situation is important in explaining variance in leadershipRead MoreEvolution of Management1083 Words   |  5 PagesEvolution of Management The evolution of management can be divided into three distinct era’s. The Pre-Classical Era, Classical era and Neo-classical era. Pre-Classical Era From the Biblical times we find monarchies of the time use some form of management to lord over the great kingdoms such as the Egyptians who used hierarchy management to build the pyramids, Moses leading the Israelites through the desert to the promised land and King David when he was in charge of the kingdom of Israel. InRead MoreWorking Alone Essay1040 Words   |  5 PagesWorking Alone: A Case For the Solitary Scientist THESIS: While useful, the formal group construct should not be considered the only acceptable approach in which scientists work: our most celebrated scientists have all worked alone while contributing much to their respective fields. SECTION II. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS: Big Science: Large groups of scientists with differing ideas or areas of expertise working collaboratively on a collective research project. Epistemic System: A socialRead MoreThe Various Theories of Criminology 1276 Words   |  5 Pagesdeveloping the theories. What role do criminologists play in the field of criminology? The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. (Schmalleger) These individuals study crime, criminals, and criminal behavior. Those responsible for collecting and examining physical evidence of crime are referred to as criminalists. Criminologists perform a variety of activities such as data gathering, data analysis, theory constructionRead MoreTheories of Personality Essay809 Words   |  4 PagesWhile Psychoanalysis was the first formal theory of personality influenced by Sigmund Freud of which was divided into three levels. According to the text; â€Å"there are three major components of mental structure of which are ID, Ego and Superego. Development proceeds from the id which includes the instincts or drives with which we are born, to ego and superego. Infants are at the most primitive stage, all id entirely driven by the urge t o gratify instinctual urges, without any notion of what is possibleRead MoreHippocrates : The Father Of Medicine1454 Words   |  6 PagesIn his books, Hippocrates mentions the Humoral theory. The humoral theory was one of the central principles in Western medicine up until the 19th century. This theory proposed that our bodies are made of diverse fluids and elements that were considered to be the fundamental building blocks of the body. These four humors were black bile, yellow or red bile, blood, and phlegm. Several future publications would challenge and elaborate on the humoral theory, but it remained to be a prominent amongst physicianRead MoreThe Theory Of Social Penetration Theory Essay1407 Words   |  6 Pages Social Penetration Theory Charnae Jenkins Due Date: 12/6/16 Farmingdale State College Professor Mobley Abstract Social penetration theory is the process of of relationship bonding where individuals move from a shallow connection to an intimate connection. People assume that the relationships will instantly progress from a slow bond to a deeper bond without people breaking down each other personality levels. It is a give and take relationshipRead MoreEvaluate the Contribution of the Hawthorne Studies to the Development of Management Theory and Practice.1720 Words   |  7 Pagessubjected to many criticisms. Yet, the evolvement of many of the management theories today would not have come about without the experiments done by Elton Mayo. This essay will cover the various aspects of management that has been refined through the findings of the tests conducted and how improvements were made to aid in the development of organisational behaviour. It will also discuss the various studies and will show how these theories implement Hawthorne studies as the foundation and the basis of the

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Brave New World and Dubliners - 1576 Words

Brave New World, written by Aldous Huxley, is a thought provoking novel set in a future of genetically engineered people, amazing technology and a misconstrued system of values. Dubliners, written by James Joyce, is a collection of short stories painting a picture of life in Dublin Ireland, near the turn of the 19th century. Though of two completely different settings and story lines, these two works can and will be compared and contrasted on the basis of the social concerns and issues raised within them. One of the first things stressed in Brave New World is the idea that there is no real discrimination. Though it is true that there is a class system, the classes are derived from the fact that people are genetically engineered†¦show more content†¦Especially if love can be defined as being comfortable and intimate with someone who accepts one for who they are and all they stand for. If that were the case then in Brave New World, in a convoluted way, every single pers on, in belonging to everyone else, also loves everyone else. But as love can not be defined so simply, this is not true. The absence of love in Huxley#8217;s novel is most obviously deliberate, just as the inclusion of love in certain pieces in Dubliners is intentional. The reason it appears obvious is that Huxley goes to great lengths to describe his world in great detail and yet does not mention love as a part of it. The reason love is brought to bear as a social issue is that without it, imagine how bland things would be. For example, fine art would have no passion, literature would contain no romance, music would be lifeless without the soul behind it. All these things and more make love a thing of huge importance in life. Michael Furey, in #8220;The Dead#8221; would not have had The Lass of Aughrim to sing, the narrator of #8220;Araby#8221; would have had no reason to go to the bazaar, in fact, many of the stories within Dubliners may never have been written. Love also pl ays a large role in family. Within Dubliners, family is an important factor in various stories. One such story is #8220;Eveline#8221;. Though it is true that in this situation, the family described may not be a precisely happy one, it is a familyShow MoreRelatedPlay Analysis : Play Dubliners 1187 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish 4441 August 21st 2014 Scoring Joyce: The Role of Music in James’ Dubliners Walter Pater pointed out that â€Å"[a]ll arts constantly aspires towards the condition of music† (page number!) in his book The Renaissance. Indeed, music crosses the language barrier and truly conveys the emotion to the audience; it has a powerful appeal to people. While literature, especially the realism literature rationally depicts the real world. The combination of music and literature is the perfect combination ofRead MoreSymbolism Used in James Joyces Dubliners2126 Words   |  9 PagesIn these stories, titled Dubliners, Joyce uses symbolism not only to enhance the stories, but to also show the hidden, underlying message of each story without coming out and saying it directly. Joyce’s stories are centered on the problems of Dublin and through his use of symbolism Joyce is able to focus attention on what problem each story is addressing. James Joyce, author of Dubliners, uses symbolism effectively to enhance the stories. The first story in Dubliners deals with the problems ofRead MoreThe Easter Rising of 1916 Essay1478 Words   |  6 Pageshand did not want home rule if it meant that their culture and tradition was to be submerged into a catholic state. Before the English could impose more laws on the Irish, another event occurred which would have massive impact - World War 1. This was the opportunity the I.R.B had been waiting for. They decided that another armed resistance should occur before the end of the War, believing that as most of the English army would be involved in the fighting in mainlandRead MoreDubliners By James Joyce : Summary2065 Words   |  9 PagesElana Sanguigni Period 3-Honors English May 9, 2016 Quarter 4 RRJ Dubliners By: James Joyce SUMMARY—ENTRY NO. 1 PAGE/SCREEN 8 TO PAGE/SCREEN 15 (â€Å"An Encounter†) Joe Dillon is a boy, who introduced the Wild West. He has a library of Wild West stories, and every evening after school the boys would meet in the back garden and pretend they were Indians. Joe and his brother, Leo, would fight hard. The other boys never won a battle. Every morning, at eight-o’-clock, Joe’s parents would go to churchRead MoreModernist Elements in the Hollow Men7051 Words   |  29 PagesIntroduction: THIS IS THE WAY THE WORLD ENDS THIS IS THE WAY THE WORLD ENDS THIS IS THE WAY THE WORLD ENDS NOT WITH A BANG BUT A WHIMPER T.S.Eliot, The Hollow Men (95-98). The end of The Hollow Men can only be the beginning of a deep and long reflection for thoughtful readers. T.S. Eliot, who always believed that in his end is his beginning, died and left his verse full of hidden messages to be understood, and codes to be deciphered. It is this complexity, which is at the heart of modernismRead MoreThe taste of melon by borden deal11847 Words   |  48 PagesThe moon floated up into the sky, making everything almost as bright as day, but at the same time softer and gentler than ever daylight could be. It was the kind of night when you feel as though you can do any132 Look Closely thing in the world, even boldly asking Willadean Wills for a date. On a night like that, you couldn’t help but feel that she’d gladly accept. â€Å"Boy, what a moon!† J.D. said when I met them. â€Å"Wouldn’t you like to take old Willadean out on a night like this?† Freddy

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

JIT Manufacturing and Inventory Control System Essay

JIT Manufacturing and Inventory Control System Since the dawn of human existence evolution in all sectors of society has occurred due to Economic factors. This has mainly happened due to the fact that all technological achievements have occurred in favor of money. Specifically we can admit that Economy is the main reason for growth and development. By these means it is in our interest to establish strong economies either as societies (macroeconomics) or as individuals (microeconomics). For these reasons several techniques and methods have been initiated in order help modern individuals to develop. Such techniques are usually Accounting or†¦show more content†¦By these means the company is never overstocked and that has as an affect that the company will never have a liquidity problem since assets as stock of goods are smaller and cash is bigger. Another reason for this to happen is the fact that Just in time manufacturing is a philosophy of eliminating non value added activities and increasing product quality throughout the manufacturing process (Meigs, Bettner, p. 804). But how can we control if our Just in time manufacturing system is efficient? The answer to that is given by Meigs and Bettner : A widely used measure of efficiency in a Just in time system is the Manufacturing Efficiency ratio (p. 805). This ratio is given by the Value Added Activities time over the Cycle time. The cycle time is the time of processing, storing, moving and inspecting that is spent on the material before their usage. If the ratio is equal to one then we have the perfect Manufacturing efficiency ratio. This means that the smaller the number the less efficient is our Just in Time manufacturing method and the larger are the Value added activities. Finally we can conclude that if we perform the Just inShow MoreRelated JIT manufacturing and inventory control system Essay1053 Words   |  5 PagesJIT Just-in-time production is considered to be on the leading edge of technological advancement. With improvements in the virtually every industry, maintaining an effective production line while minimizing inventory costs is a very feasible option. Just-in-time systems are designed to keep inventory costs at a minimum, unlike the ways of old, with large warehouses loaded with back inventory. With technology allowing instantaneous communication around the world, production lines and stores doRead MoreNotes On Jit Inventory Systems Essay1666 Words   |  7 Pagesintroduced during the 1950s and 1960s that has the characteristics of a pull system, meaning required inventory is only produced or used when demand is â€Å"pulling† to do so. After the inventory is used up, only what is needed to replace what has been used is manufactured. Because goods are only produced to keep up with demand, there is minimal inventory which can cause a reduction in overhead and an increase in respon siveness. JIT systems are based on the pull concept rather than the push concept, where productsRead MoreJit And Its Effect On The Manufacturing Industry1081 Words   |  5 Pages Just-In-Time (JIT), will be examined. The historical background of JIT and its impact on the manufacturing industry will also be discussed. An important highlight of this paper will be the discussion of push versus pull and how it relates to JIT. Lean manufacturing and its relation to JIT will also be addressed. Finally, the relationship between JIT and a Kanban manufacturing system will be highlighted. Information from scholarly research will be utilized to determine whether JIT can be implementedRead MoreAlternative Terms For Jit Manufacturing Essay1458 Words   |  6 PagesJust-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, also known as just-in-time production or the Toyota production system (TPS), is a methodology aimed primarily at reducing flow times within production system as well as response times from supplier s and to customers. Following its origin and development in Japan, largely in the 1960s and 1970s and particularly at Toyota.[1][2] Alternative terms for JIT manufacturing have been used. Motorola s choice was short-cycle manufacturing (SCM).[3][4] IBM s was continuous-flowRead MoreA Brief Note On Jit And Its Effect On How Business Is A World Leader Of Development And Production849 Words   |  4 PagesEvery company, firm, or organization has a need to know and understand how to plan for production and the inventory needed to sustain it. During the reconstruction following World War Two an atmosphere was present that enabled pioneering minds just as Deming to institute several industrial theories into practice. Having embraced the concepts whole heartedly, these theories enabled post war Japan to become a world leader in development and production. According to Evans Lindsay (2010), theseRead MoreJit : An Inventory Strategy1177 Words   |  5 PagesDEFINITION of Just In Time - JIT An inventory strategy companies employ to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the production process, thereby reducing inventory costs. This method requires that producers are able to accurately forecast demand. INVESTOPEDIA EXPLAINS Just In Time - JIT A good example would be a car manufacturer that operates with very low inventory levels, relying on their supply chain to deliver the parts they need to buildRead MoreThe Human Nature Of Human Beings1105 Words   |  5 Pagescreation in manufacturing industries has been the just-in-time theory, which is a production system responsible to identify problems in the value chain and to work and analyze these problems to reduce the waste with overproduction, delays in the production schedule and increasing the production (Cheng, 1996). There are a quite number of benefits of employing just in time in a production line that influence at the goods` final quality, time and the company’s profit. Employing just-in-time (JIT) in industriesRead MoreA Comparison For Variable Cost And Absorption Costing990 Words   |  4 Pagescosting using Sales: 60,000 units Production: 80,000 units Ending Inventory: 20,000 units Based on these analyses I have made several recommendations along with pros and cons to aid in the decision-making process. I recommend that we use absorption costing over variable costing. Absorption costing is a method where â€Å"†¦fixed manufacturing costs are inventoriable costs† (Datar, et al, 2009). That is, inventory â€Å"absorbs† all manufacturing costs. In the absorption metho there does not need to be a distinctionRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management ( Crm )1359 Words   |  6 PagesERP systems bring together all aspects of operations and supply chain management, from raw materials to customer relationship management (CRM). Electronics retailer Best Buy found that the use of demand management tools increased price optimization, which in turn increased inventory turns by 50% (Blanchard, 2010). Other tools, like benchmarking, are also immensely valuable as automobile manufacturer Hyundai discovered. The company found that fill rate, the percentage of customer demand satisfiedRead MoreJust in Time1644 Words   |  7 Pagesan analysis and evaluation of the Just-In-Tim e system, the advantages and disadvantages of the system and how it would benefit AG Z. The Just-In-Time (JIT) system is a process where goods are ordered as required, as opposed to the currently used batch processing system where goods are made in bulk and stored in warehouses until sold. The Just-In-Time system was initially developed to not only cut down the amount of waste produced by other systems, which was seen as incurring unnecessary costs

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Digitizing Practices and Systems †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Digitizing Practices and Systems. Answer: Introduction: One more function that can help the management in taking decisions in a case like this, will be to make use of efficient BI tools, that will store the details about all the employees, a calculate the wages that must be paid on the basis of the specific details that are provided by the management. It will help in proper sorting of the employees as per the specific level of demands and in case there is any abnormality it can send alert to the management. That will ensure that the management is able to make profitable decisions by paying only what is needed. It will also help in taking the cessions fast and without any errors(Arnott, et al., 2017). 4b) In case the ABC contractors Ltd are going to hire all the employees that are above and at level 4, the company will calculate the total amount of wages that the company will be required to pay the workers will be charged from the contractors and the classification of the same is shown below under. There are total six employees of the company who fall under this category with different wage rates. The total calculation is shown below. name level wage rate no of hours worked overtime hour total amount to be paid Paris Hilton 5 70 45 9 3330 Ricky mortini 4 60 52 16 3600 Jennifer lopeez 6 80 36 2880 Russel Creak 6 80 34 2720 Rafael Nooderly 4 60 44 8 2880 Kath Hudson 6 80 52 16 4320 19730 Over the years we have seen a shift in the overall process of business intelligence. From being an integral part of the IT department, it has moved to the business. It is no more related to the use of IT companies and has shifted from being an IT burden to an important part of the business. This trend is going to rise in the coming years, given that the companies have been able to develop self service business tools and has led to an increase in the overall data. Experts have commented that the business analytics is the final year where it is moving from the IT department, used only by the IT companies to more persuasive business use, business led analytics of service. The organization of the modern world, will continue to use these business intelligence tools, that are very fast, agile, easy to use and can be customized as per the need of the business. It helps to create the overall enterprise value from the use of diverse data sources(Visinescu, et al., 2017). That is the growing t rend of the use of the business intelligence tools. More and more companies are switching to BI tools rather for development. The major five biggest growing trends in this arena of business intelligence tools are - Growth in the demand of self service BI tools, that are less governed. Though lack of governance might lead to a lot of inconsistencies, however it helps the business to grow by giving the power in the hands of the user. There has been a growth in the predictive analytics, where instead of commenting and making useful use of the past data, the companies are now trying to use the tools of BI to comment and predict the future scenarios that will help them I taking important decisions with regard to the business. There has been constant flow of growth in the data, as the generation has become internet savvy, with the attachment of the physical data to the World Wide Web, the flow of data is constant and thus it gives the companies to churn out their requirements from the palpable sources that they might find on the internet(Kohtamki, 2017). Previously BI tools where there only to identify the changes in the overall data flow, it only led to data calculation and storing it. But now with the advent to technology, it can predict any abnormal changes in the data that is stored, anything that is contrary from the regular is caught by the BI tools, and an alarm is sent to the management. There has been a growth in the purpose built BI tools, where the companies can customize these tools as per needs. A single platform previously was designed to carter to the needs of all the companies but with time we see that may not be useful for many companies. Hence the trend of custom built BI tools has been designed that will be helpful for the success of the organization Two features of commonly used business intelligence tools that can help in decision making are- The commonly used business intelligence tools like Sisense, DOMO, BIRT etc, are very fast and capable to churn and store large amount of data at the same time. This helps the managers in data processing, and sooner the data will be processed the companies can make better use of the same. It reduces the need of manual labor and since everything is system generated there are very low of chances of error in the same. Thus it eventually helps the management in taking important decisions with regard to the data that is processed(Trieu, 2017). Nowadays apart from storing the data and processing it, the BI tools can easily recognize if there are any errors and send alarms to the management. For example, if the purchase number has an unnatural decline over a particular week than the system will catch the same and send an alert to the management. Anything that is against the routine matter and that involve any kind of suspicion, is caught by the system thus that will helping avoiding a lot of errors. The companies will be able to important decisions on the basis of these tools, without any hesitations(Laursen Thorlund, 2016) Refrences Arnott, D., Lizama, F. Song, Y., 2017. Patterns of business intelligence systems use in organizations. Decision Support Systems, Volume 97, pp. 58-68. Kohtamki, M., 2017. Real-time Strategy and Business Intelligence: Digitizing Practices and Systems. Finland: Palgrave Macmillan. Laursen, G. Thorlund, J., 2016. Business Analytics for Managers: Taking Business Intelligence Beyond Reporting. Second ed. CANADA: Wiley Publisher. Trieu, V., 2017. Getting value from Business Intelligence systems: A review and research agenda. Decision Support Systems, Volume 93, pp. 111-124. Visinescu, L., Jones, M. Sidorova, A., 2017. Improving Decision Quality: The Role of Business Intelligence. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(1), pp. 58-66.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Looking At The Developmenst Of Social Work Social Work Essay Example

Looking At The Developmenst Of Social Work Social Work Essay Social work has been socially constructed as a response to personal, cultural and structural crisis, marginalization and inequality, yet constrained by political, economic and social tendencies. Contemporary pattern has maintained and rejected certain features of its promotion, reacting and accommodating to alter. The profession s theoretical, ethical and structural foundations will be discussed and its values examined. Associating the profession s historical minutes and varied development to societal work s modern-day function, its current place and position, professionally and socially. As societies continue to germinate so must societal work to back uping them, staying antiphonal to those it serves. It is acknowledged that merely certain issues have been discussed ; those presented are non additive nor finite but many-sided and go oning. Industrialization created the mass urbanization of unskilled labor bring forthing societal and economic alteration. Concerns arose over the sustainability of poorness alleviation, prompted by the fright of dependence, societal upset and increasing birth rates. Poor wellness, corruption and marginalization within the working categories was emphasised by spiritual diminution and renferement, provoked moral terror within the higher categories, promoting societal alteration ( Payne, 2005 ) . Simultaneously, broad economic values, prioritizing economic growing and free trade, advancing individualistic values of freedom and duty, conflicted with unregulated province intercession, ( Healy, 2005 ) . The New Poor Law ( 1834 ) embodied the limitation and modernization of alleviation commissariats, implemented by workhouses, which enforced tough alleviation eligibility standards, coupled with harsh and oppressive conditions, actuating self -help in-line with lassize faire political orientation. Relief distinguished between the deserving and the unworthy hapless, those in true need through sick wellness, age or circumstance were treated good in comparing to, the work shy and lazy who exchanged labor for alleviation. The rule of caring developed in workhouses, establishments turned into suppliers of attention and their employees into paid societal work professionals ( Payne, 2005, pp. 330-35 ) . Within the hapless jurisprudence political orientation societal work evolved as a tool to specify the deserving, workhouses developed into specialised attention establishments whilst their financial construction underpinned province provided services. In add-on and contrast, philanthropic almsgiving was indiscriminate, supplying charitable alleviation analogue to the hapless Torahs. We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Developmenst Of Social Work Social Work specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Developmenst Of Social Work Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Looking At The Developmenst Of Social Work Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Philanthropy ran parallel to hapless jurisprudence alleviation, supported by spiritual morality, fright and responsibility, though manipulated to avoid workhouse conditions, ( Stedman-Jones, 1976 as cited in Harris, 2008 ) . The formation of the Charitable Organisation Society ( COS ) ( 1969 ) provided counsel and rules, foregrounding cognition as a footing to charitable action. The COS believed disorganized and unselective charity encouraged corruption, doing aˆÂ ¦the pauperization of the hapless, ( Payne, 2005 ) bring forthing impermanent alleviation and dependence. Perceiving, charity dignified the giver and enhanced the morality of the receiving system if deserving, yet, if unworthy provided encouragement to stay in poorness. To be beneficent, charity should help adequately i.e. so as to bring forth self assist in the receiver ( Horner, 2009, p. 22 ) . Within modern-day pattern, appraisals define eligibility ; resources are trade goods and the differentiation of demand i mportant to prosecute with services. The COS believed poorness was the accelerator of immorality, offense, bad fortunes and the beginning of physical and mental wellness impositions, impacting persons and society. Consequently, they associated the development of moral character , with the obliteration of poorness, locating regulated charity within the model of the province alleviation system. Guaranting a clear division between the Poor Law and private philanthropic gift was intended to let the former to run harshly and efficaciously ( Yeo, 1973 as cited in Harris 2008, p.665 ) . However, the values and moral principle of the COS, bestowed by the occupational values of its associates, shaped professional methods and patterns. Casework emerged within The Housing Movement aimed to better lodging conditions, helping adult females to budget and organise, achieved by friend sing , developed by Olivia Hill ( COS ) . Awarding support based on moral character, determine by appraisal, which recorded elaborate histories and maintained comprehensive records. Casework evolved, admiting the impact of household relationships, utilizing friendly sing to organize professional interpersonal relationships and later developing attention programs to react to appraisals, to boot supplying preparation. The COS influenced the foundations of pattern, developing values and determining modern-day societal work. Payne ( 2005 ) highlighted the importance of the colony motion in act uponing societal reform and surveillance. Toynbee Hall ( 1884 ) placed elect pupils within deprived vicinities exemplifying moral and educated behavior, societal teaching method, community and group work. Concentrating on external and environmental caus es of want, associating to wellness issues associated with poorness. However, political involvement in societal order and support demand, intend political influence emerged, emanating a degree of control which divided the emerging profession of societal work into attention and control functions. However, where charity did non develop and societal order was threatened the province stepped in, ( Payne, 2005 ) . Reamer 2005 ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) regarded this as the Morality Period , outstanding values were those of faith and individuality, from the COS s evangelical roots and pattern methods. Emerging societal work judged clients against alleviation, positions of morality and behavior justified their actions, yet influenced by political motive for societal reform ( Younghusband 1981 cited in Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) .These patterns and values moulded the profession of societal work to its inclusion with province proviso after WWII. In the twentieth century proviso remained unchanged and undisputed yet, poorness was identified as the catalyst/cause of diverse societal issues and as a response discourse evolved. The in agreement thesis was the obliteration of poorness that would take to the obliteration or at least the decrease -in the effects of societal ailments. ( Horner, 2009, p. 23 ) . The Royal Commission on the Poor Law ( 1905-9 ) considered opposing broad and socialist discourses refering public assistance provision. Two contrasting philosophical attacks to the job of poorness ( Vincent, 1984, p. 346 ) The COS maintained broad Victorian positions, backing hapless jurisprudence alleviation though necessitating reform and advancing single duty, whilst supplying parallel proviso for excluded groups. However, challenging province led intercessions that maintained poorness and created dependance. The COS proposal had similarities to New Labour s third manner , though, the opposing Fabians provided the fo oting of the labor party ( Horner, 2009 ) . Fabians represented the socialist in-between categories, backing the hapless jurisprudence permutation of public aid through province led services. They acknowledged the causes of poorness, suggesting the categorization of depravational differences, i.e. age, wellness and employment, which placed societal workers as hatchet mans of control, to the work shy and lazy. Fabian laminitis Beatrice Webb, ( cited in Vincent, 1984, p. 344 ) stated the COS were lassie faire individualists critical of all authorities extension . Social work developed from the COS patterns within the context and restraints of Fabian ideals, which reflected modern thoughts of poorness organizing the footing of the public assistance province. State public assistance, during WWII, intervened where charities failed to supply alleviation, ( Harris, 2008 ) , the station war depression highlighted probationary weaknesss and the demand for societal restructuring, renovation and stabilization , ( Payne, 2005, pp. 24-30 ) . The Beveridge Report ( 1942 ) developed province public assistance, highlighted social barriers in five societal immoralities ; sloth, ignorance, illness, sordidness and want ( Payne, 2005 ) . However, the response to the study produced socialist ideals and societal security proviso, the focal point of developments was in corporate societal commissariats such as societal security, wellness attention and cosmopolitan instruction ( Payne, 2005, pp. 41-46 ) . Labor gained electoral success in 1945 backing the recommendations in the formation of the NHS ( National Health Act 1946 ) and abolition of the hapless jurisprudence ( 1948 ) . However, in-between category agitation due to continued proviso of charitabl e alleviation meant that province public assistance besides served to forestall revolution. Simultaneously to welfare, societal work developed a specialized function. mediate the province and the person, defined by statute law and demand and supported by theory. Social work had strived for professional intent from its spiritual and theoretical beginnings, whilst associated subjects gained scientific legitimacy. Mary Richmond ( 1917 ) , a societal work pedagogue, enabled theoretical development utilizing sociological and economical positions, besides taking influences from the medical profession, critiqued subsequently by extremist societal work. ( Healy, 2005 ) Social work turned to psychological theories to derive insight into persons behavior, aˆÂ ¦shall seek to understand the individual in demand, non merely at that peculiar minute in clip, but besides the spouse of personality, the major experiences and relationshipsaˆÂ ¦ . ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009, pp. 206-11 ) . Correlating with the promotion of appraisal, which began to see a societal diagnosing , ( Richmond 1917 cited in Wilson, Ruch, Lymbery, A ; Cooper, 2008, pp.194-99 ) , supplying scientific proof that with casework united the profession. In 1930-60 ps ychodynamics wedged casework, constructs of usually and aberrance complemented the ethos of specifying moral character ( Payne, 2005 ) . However, the COS s positions lost relevancy to societal plants aims, within pattern and the bid of societal policy. Social works relationship with psychological science influenced theory, statute law and societal planning, ( Horner, 2009 ) . Whilst socio-economics and political relations structured and supported individualistic values prominent within theory, making legalization that gave societal work a cardinal function within public assistance. Renewed societal policies and reform, allowed the promotion of societal work methods and values, back uping the creative activity of public assistance. The important component that defined societal work from other signifiers of public assistance was its developing methods and its policy and theoretical aspirations and peculiarity, ( Payne, 2005, pp. 583-88 ) . Social plant was a station book to the new public assistance government, yet specifying its function. In the 1960s discontent and credibleness issues within psychological science and depth psychology shifted thought towards the societal concerns of service users, spliting support between psychological and societal theories. However, Florence Hollis acknowledged the many-sided demands of pattern, join forcesing societal scientific disciplines and casework making psychosocial theories, ( Healy, 2005 ) . Additionally, systems theory became outstanding in developing brief intercessions ; crisis intercession, task-centred casework and cognitive behavioral therapies, still implemented in the interpersonal and multidisciplinary contexts of modern-day societal work. However, criticised for avoiding long-run issues and doing societal exclusion. Wider societal factors developed the values base, underscoring the importance of power, inequality and societal justness yet traditional values did non see the wider structural and cultural context act uponing societal work intervention.. Reamer ( 2005 ) considered station war to be the Values Period , traditional societal work values underpinned interpersonal methods, embodied by Biestek s seven point scheme ( 1961 ) , ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) . The list attack , ( Timms 1983 cited in Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009, pp. 119-23 ) , of Biesek elaborate features, meaning a cosmopolitan lower limit for effectual pattern, normally sharing a regard for the single individual as a ego determined being ( Banks, 2006, p. 27 ) . To deny traditional values was unethical and oppressive holding negative effects yet conflicting values were non admiting. Individuality and self-government, enabled understanding and respect yet rejected shared societal norms, premises and stereotypes and the influence of structural power dealingss and societal establishments that identified the commonalty of groups and indicated inequality. Additionally, the public assistance province challenged societal work to travel from its individualistic beginning, advancing human rights within societal issues. Extremist societal work challenged social positions, placing societal inequality as a factor of poorness, created by societal concepts instead than personal features. ( Healy, 2005 ) . Extremist concerns re-alliterated category focused subjugation, identified during the colony motion, act uponing values and socio-economic disadvantage. Social work reflected feminist and anti-racist societal motions, integrating anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory values in pattern and societal policy. However, statute law intended to act upon inequality failed to place the causing of favoritism, yet, supported societal workers to dispute elements of societal control ( Thompson N. , 2006 ) . The extremist con instance pronunciamento ( 1975 ) emphasised structural, economic and political factors demoing the bounds of individualistic focal point, ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) . As societal work s specialized functions expanded execution became confused decreasing quality and co-ordination, yet societal public assistance needed a incorporate attack to services. ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) . The Seebohm Committee ( 1968 ) highlighted rigidness within pattern, resource restraints, freak out and unequal preparation and instruction. Yet, reacting with inclusiveness and cosmopolitan proviso, concentrating on the support and fusion of services, whilst, turn toing the ineffectualness of service application. The study wanted a community based household orientated service which was available to all ( Parsons, 2009. Feb 14 ( 1 ) ) , alining societal work within the cardinal dimension of the public assistance province. The Local Authority Social Services Bill ( 1970 ) implemented the Seebohm recommendations, societal service sections became accountable to local communities prioritizing their human rights and wellbeing, disputing the built-in stigmatising o f the hapless Torahs whilst back uping professional preparation within a generic and incorporate service. Seebohm saw societal work, public assistance, community and groups work as every bit valid and of import. Legislative models influenced the context of pattern and back uping considerable professional discretion exercised by the societal worker. ( Harris, 1998 ) . However, generic services overlooked clients specializer demands and professional strived to be specialist due to authorization and wage, the model argument of continues in modern-day pattern. In seeking to retain a sense of control over their pattern, many staff adopted an informal specializer function within purportedly generic construction Satyamurti 1981ascited in ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009, pp. 310-17 ) Reamer ( 2005 ) considered this the ethical theory and determination devising period ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009, pp. 122-25 ) of value development, based on philosopher Kant. Challenging the relevancy, importance and application of values, whilst, critically developing moral rules to advance behavior. Using individualistic values yet, admiting structural barriers making anti-oppressive pattern, holistic to the clients context and ego. The station Seebohm period provided societal work optimism and integrity, cardinal to policy reform and proviso, yet alteration continued. The new right political orientation incorporated extremist societal plants point of view, these critical positions were appropriated by rightist minds and became edifice blocks for the New Right s docket for societal work ( Harris, 2008, p. 271 ) . However, uncertainnesss over generic function and the co-ordination of incorporate services, coupled with negative media coverage of specific kid maltreatment incidences created concern. The elected Conservative authorities ( 1979 ) criticised the public assistance province s enlargement, morality, quality and cost represented by societal work, ( Harris, 2008 ) . The new right thesis was implemented in the Barclay study ( 1982 ) critically reexamining societal plants purpose, spread outing remit and effectual utilizations, in association with public assistance committednesss. Proposing suited funct ions and contexts ; the safety net attack focussed societal work on eligibility, distinguishing the deserving, welfare province attack mirrored station war public assistance public aid. However, the preferable community attack promoted interpersonal support webs, placing societal work proviso and back uping accomplishment instead than dependence. Social work lost its cardinal function in the new enterprises, traveling in-line with the new right. However, modernization and specialization replaced the community attack after the Community Care Reform, making separate kid, household and grownup services. ( Harris, 2008 ) Neo-liberalism and the general understanding on trades and services opened up the denationalization, the province ruled by administration, replacing hierarchy with partnership. Global mutuality enables partnership on the macro degree, nevertheless, act uponing or restraining authorities actions and policies, impacting local resources at the micro degree. The planetary pecuniary fund supports systems of denationalization, legalizing public assistance reform and set uping province authorization. Neo liberalism is the political response in a hazard society, concentrating on individualistic duty and emphasises societal inequality, backed by province socialism and a deficiency of options. ( Ferguson, Lavalette, A ; Whitmore, 2005 ) . However, societal work is planetary activity, the International Association of Schools of Social Work ( IASSW ) has been involved with the United Nations since 1947, instrumental in Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( 1948 ) . Globalization supports the exchange of theories, research and ends, motivating charities intercession at planetary times of crisis, subjugation and catastrophe. The International Federation of Social Works ( IFSW ) and the International Council on Social Welfare ( ICSW ) have formed planetary policies protecting the vulnerable. Yet, standardization without cultural context creates societal work as an oppressor with globalization as a accelerator of societal reform. Neo-liberal positions supported welfare modernization, turn toing economic concerns, modulating hazard and consumer driven markets, epitomised by marketization and managerialization. ( Harris, 2008, p. 673 ) Marketisation opened services to market forces, with local governments going commissioners of a assorted economic system of attention. The modernization docket promoted common appraisal models, multidisciplinary work and partnerships making a web society, integrating shared and conflicting values spread outing the cognition base. The province became an enabler of chance, taking barriers and rejecting cosmopolitan purposes. Though denationalization aimed to additions quality and scope of attention, it became a go-between between authorities, policy and societal demands, motivated by net income instead than public assistance. ( Adams, Domenelli, A ; Payne, 2009 ) Contracts enabled the control of resorts and outlooks compressing pattern New labor embodied the new right political orientation in contrast to its station war thoughts, modernization docket continued across parties with New Labour s 3rd manner doctrine . Perceived weaknesss in traditional direction created a new public direction underscoring concern ideals. Policy and political relations prioritised efficiency and effectivity as a response to modern society. Independent budgets changed clients to independent clients in a societal attention endeavor. Professional opinion was replaced with answerability, analysis and ordinance making an audit development, increased bureaucratism and compromising good pattern and values. Social policy supported and directed societal work nevertheless simplifying society s complexnesss making unintended effects underscoring hazard direction. Modernization has constrained and standardised pattern, adding direction of resources to societal work pattern. However, the Best values model ( 2000 ) ensures that cost and productive ness is non provided over quality. Yet, Labours Third manner was criticised for the mean of accomplishing instead than its purposes. Social alterations such as the impact of Globalisation, hazard engineerings and the growing of corporate Capitalism produce conditions of profound uncertainness which impact on moralss and political relations ( Webb, 2006, p. 201 ) ( CCETSW ) study outlined competency and outlooks of societal workers, organizing the foundation of the General Social Care Council ( GSCC ) codifications of pattern and national occupational criterions. the GSCC societal work Regulatation began from The attention criterions attention act ( 2000 ) , portion of an intergrated system designed to keep service, instruction and professional quality ( Horner, 2009 ) supplying managerial supervising, modulating preparation and development and detailing outlooks, accomplishments and values required within societal policy and service related to modern-day societal work. ( Thompson N. , 2009 ) . GSCC ( 2005 ) produced revised frame work for instruction societal work making a protected and registered business implementing independent pattern criterions making answerability, back uping transparence and admiting unethical pattern with de-registration. However It is unrealistic to believe that a set of regulations and process will guarantee ethic al pattern ( Thompson N. , 2009 )