Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Case Study: Pre Eclampsia | Essay
Case Study Pre Eclampsia EssayThis essay is based on a content study and will discuss the underlying pathophysiology, focusing and psycho fond aspects a patient faces when diagnosed with preeclampsia. Information was obtained by means of the patient and from their medical notes. role A Case HistoryJB is a 38-year-old, gravida 4, para 0, Caucasian womanly who presented in hospital at 36 weeks plus 5 eld gestation with sudden development of dropsy in the face and speed and tear down extremities a large with a severe psycheache.On examination her dividing line pressure (BP) was elevated at 171/107 mmHg. Her pulse 81 beats per fleck (bpm), respiratory assess 15 breaths per minutes, and temperature was 36.4 C. Her urine sample showed ++ 2 proteinuria. at that tail was evidence of oedema in her face and upper and lower extremities and her lower deep tendon reflexes were b guess but without any clonus. JB denied any visual disturbances and epigastric pain. On palpitation o f the abdomen, the symphysio-fundal height was 38cm. The fetal lie was longitudinal and the back appe atomic number 18d to be on the right. The presentation appeargond to be cephalic and the head was 3/5 engaged.Electronic fetal monitoring showed fetal titty rate at 135 bpm, with reassuring variability. at that place was no subnormality and acceleration was normal. It was also noted that contractions were absent.Her antenatal care had been shared in the midst of the hospital and her general practitioner and was un nonethelesstful until she was admitted to hospital on this occasion.On briefly reviewing JBs past medical history she has seasonal allergies as vigorous as long standing asthma in which she uses salbutamol inhaler to scavenge her symptoms. JB also has a history of depression. In her family history her father suffers from high source pressure as come up as cirrhosis and her start has a rummy medical history of extensive medical conditions such as hypertension, a ngina, and cursory ischemic accidents. Both her paternal grandparents had a history of type 2 diabetes.With regards to her social history, JB works as a customer assistant and lives with her goner. JB has never smoked, and has not taken alcohol since finding out she was pregnant.Her past obstetrical history is remarkable for recurrent miscarriages. She had twain miscarriages at 6-8 weeks and one ectopic pregnancy a year and a half ago which miscarried naturally at 10 weeks.The initial investigations showed a normal full blood count, coloured enzymes and creatinine. However urate (0.37 mmol/l) and the protein creatinine ratio (44 mg/mmol) levels were elevated. JB is demonstrating key cardinal symptoms of preeclampsia including hypertension, proteinuria, oedema, and change magnitude reflexes.1A diagnosis of severe pre-eclamptic toxaemia was made, JB was admitted and treatment was commenced with 10mg nifedipine.With JB macrocosm admitted onto the ward, on that point was co ntinuous monitoring of BP and fetal monitoring using cardiotocography (CTG). The adjoining morning JBs BP stabilised to 128/74 mm Hg and she reported tactile property better. With the BP stable and a reassuring CTG a ratiocination to induce colouredy was made and she was given Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) over three days. However there was pitiable response and the cervix re of imported obstinately unchanged and so it was decided the bollocks up would need to be delivered via caesarean section.Section B Pathophysiology preeclampsia is part of a range of conditions k directlyn as the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.2 It is defined as a multisystem disorder characterised by the new onset of raised BP ( cxl/90 mm Hg) and proteinuria (at least 1 + on dipstick or 0.3 g/24 hours) later 20 weeks of gestation.3-5 Although the triggering event initiating the syndrome is unknown, a two stage way of lifel of preeclampsia has been proposed (figure 1).1,6-9 The primary a diagnostic stag e, characterised by wanting(predicate) remodelling of the eutherian mammal vasculature during the commencement ceremony trimester results in reduced placental perfusion touching to placental ischemia and release of placental products into the enatic circulation.1,6,7 Consequently this initiates the second symptomatic stage, the parental syndrome in which endothelial dysfunction precedes the clinical manifestations of the disorder including character hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis.1,6,7 thither is also find for growth the HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets), improvement to eclampsia, and end-organ modify.1,6,7Stage 1In normal pregnancy, interest implantation, the surface trophoblast cellular phones of the adhering blastocyst differentiate into an inner cellular layer, the cytotrophoblast, and an outer syncytiotrophoblast.10,11 The un severalise cytotrophoblasts rig in the inner layer elicit develop into hormo nally alert villous syncytiotrophoblasts, extravillous anchoring trophoblastic cell columns, and invasive intermediate trophoblasts.10 The extravillous trophoblastic cells pro mannersrate from the tips of anchoring chorionic villi to form the cytotrophoblast shell which line the uterine cavity.10,11 Cytotrophoblasts continue to migrate through the uterine endometrium until they reach the spiral arteries, by which time they impart differentiated into an endothelial-like cell type.10,11 Endovascular trophoblast cells begin to remodel the spiral arteries by replacing the endothelium and beam muscle cells resulting in the destruction of medial elastic, muscular and neural tissue.10-12These physiological changes result in an additiond vessel diameter leading to the invention of a low-resistance arteriolar system with the absence of maternal vasomotor run across, and then allowing a notable increase in blood supply to the developing fetus.7,10In preeclampsia this physiological di latation does not occur adequately thus resulting in placental hypoperfusion and ischemia.1,8,10 The ischemic placenta may lead to the exertion of cytokines and growth factors as well up as simulate placental programmed cell death or necrosis, resulting in release of humoral or particulate materials into maternal systemic circulation that promote generalised maternal vascular endothelium dysfunction, culminating in the clinical manifestations of pre-eclampsia.1,8,10The invasion of trophoblast cells is regulated by factors expressed by the decidual barrier.7,10 These factors include cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix, proteinases, growth factors and cytokines.7,10 Malfunctions in any these factors may lead to poor trophoblast invasion and subsequently pre-eclampsia.7,10 Immunological factors play a main factor in pre-eclampsia.7,10,11 Abnormal placentation may be the result of maternal immune rejection of paternal antigens expressed by the fetus. Normally HLA-G, a split up 1B MHC antigen, expressed by the extravillous trophoblasts protects from natural killer cell lysis.11-13 Women who develop pre-eclampsia do not appear to express this HLA-G and therefore are not protected.7,10Stage 2The clinical manifestations of pre-eclampsia can be think to the pathophysiological changes that occur including vasoconstriction, activation of coagulation cascade and reduced plasma volume.14 information of hypertension is a key feature of pre-eclampsia.1,8,14 During normal pregnancy, although through maternal physiological adaptations there is a 30-50 % increase in cardiac output, the go down in off-base vascular resistance results in decreased arterial BP.14 However, those who develop pre-eclampsia suffer widespread vasoconstriction, increased peripheral vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac output.1,13 Evidence shows there to be an exaggerated esthesia of the vasculature of women with pre-eclampsia to all vasopressors hormones, best known is the incre ased responsiveness to angiotonin II.1,13 This increase in vascular reactivity is thought to be collectable to an alteration in the counterweight of prostaglandins as a result to the damage to vascular endothelial damage.1 JBs BP when she presented was 171/107 mm Hg. This is a considerably elevated and can be defined as severe pre-eclampsia (160 / cx mm Hg).2-4Although wandering retention and oedema occurs in patients with pre-eclampsia they are also a feature of normal pregnancy.1 Plasma volume increases by approximately 50% in uncomplicated gestations and normal gravidas sometimes regard oedema.1 However in pre-eclampsia plasma volume is decreased by 15-20% and in these cases women experience speedy weight gain and generalised oedema as a result of an abnormal shift of extracellular fluid (ECF) from the vascular to the extravascular compartment hence maintaining a low plasma volume and an increased interstitial fluid volume.1,14,17 With excessive accumulation of interstitial ECF, the presence of peripheral oedema particularly in the face and hands is seen. JB haemoglobulin was 130g/l, reflecting the haemoconcentration seen in pre-eclampsia as a consequence of the reduced intravascular volume.1Women with pre-eclampsia also have noticeably reduced renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).1 The free fall in RPF is attributed to vasoconstriction, whereas the fall in GFR is related both to the decline in RPF as well as to the morphological changes in the kidney.1 These feature pathological changes of pre-eclampsia are known as glomerular endotheliosis and live mainly of diffuse glomerular endothelial cell swelling, enough to stay the capillary lumen.1,7,8,13,15 The morphologic lesion is accompanied by functional changes in renal hemodynamics which correlates best with the magnitude of hyperuricemia and proteinuria.1,5 Early to middle pregnancy serum uric acid unremarkably falls well below 0.24 mmol/l, in patients with pre-eclampsia levels often rise 0.27 mmol/l as seen in the case of JB (0.37 mmol/l).14 A number of studies have correlated the rise in serum uric acid with the severity of pre-eclampsia and with the extent of glomerular injury.5,8 JBs PCR levels was also heedful to estimate the extent of proteinuria. The result put down 44 mg/mmol predicts evidential proteinuria, the threshold being 30mg/mmol.17Left untreated, pre-eclampsia can proceed to life threatening convulsions termed eclampsia.18 Another specific complication that can arise from pre-eclampsia is the HELLP syndrome, which is illustrated by the sudden appearance of a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, elevation of liver enzymes and a rapidly falling platelet count.18 In these cases rapid pause of pregnancy is have a bun in the ovend to avoid hepatic or renal failure, sepsis, or even death.1,6,7,15,18Section C ManagementTreatment for hypertension in pregnancy raises a series of challenges to the healthcare team.17 An in-depth knowledg e of the adaptive physiological, mental and social processes is required in order to choose the optimal circumspection for the mother and her fetus.17,19Incomplete understanding of the aetiology in pre-eclampsia has hindered attempts at prevention.12,17 However effective and adequate prenatal care anxiety of pre-eclampsia has led to the reduced death rate related to this disorder.15,16 This includes earlier detection and referral of women at high risk, careful monitoring with prevention and treatment of complications, and a decision regarding timely deli actually.15,16 Delivery stay the definitive treatment for pre-eclampsia even though the disease progression may not resolve immediately.8 succeeding(a) diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, management relies on the initial observations recorded of both mother and fetus.4,16 The central goal of management of pre-eclampsia is ultimately to protect the benefit of the mother and prevent progression to eclampsia and then the delivery of a effectual newborn.4,16 While delivery is always suitable for the mother, it might not be appropriate for a premature fetus.4,16 Therefore the decision to deliver is influenced by the mothers condition, gestational age and status of fetus at the time of assessment.4,16JBs management was given in accordance to guidelines from Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.5,17 Based on JB diagnosis at 36.5 weeks she was admitted to hospital with the decision to induce labour and allow a vaginal delivery.Observations of vital signs including BP, heart rate, oxygen saturations, and respiratory rate were recorded every 15 minutes along with continuous CTG monitoring.5,15 A 10 mg dose of oral anti-hypertensive nifedipine was given to stabilize her BP originally she could be induced. The sole need to treat is to prevent the hemorrhagic rat of hypertension, in particular cerebral haemorrhage, rather than alter the progression of the disease process.2 Antihypertensive dose therapy is advised for pregnant women with systolic BP of 160 or diastolic BP 110 mm Hg.2,5,17 The goal of treatment is to lower systolic pressure to 130-150 mmHg and diastolic pressure to 80-100 mmHg.5,17 It is also important that BP is lowered piecemeal to prevent hypotension as placental perfusion can be adversely bear upon and compromise the fetus15. With a conservative management plan in place and JB stable, the BP was measured every four hours during the day. Full blood count, renal and liver function tests, were all carried out daily.5,17There are many doable choices of antihypertensives that are appropriate in pregnancy.8 Methyldopa and labetalol are first line antihypertensive drugs used in treatment of pre-eclampsia.4,5 Methyldopa is a centrally acting alpha2 agonist that reduces sympathetic outflow activity.15,20 Although it has a long track safety record, due to the common drug side personal effects of depression, in the case of JB with a history of depression it was agreed an preference should be used.14,15 The use of labetalol was also contraindicated in JB case as she is asthmatic.5 Labetalol is a non discriminating beta blocker and a selective alpha blocker.15,21As both of these were contraindicated in JB case, nifedipine was prescribed instead. nifedipine is a type 2 calcium channel blocker which is usually used as a second line agent in cases where BP is noncompliant to treatment with methyldopa and beta blockers.15,20,21 It acts by inhibiting the inward manoeuver of calcium ions from extracellular space and by the inhibition of uptake by smooth muscle cells.15,20,21 Its primary effect is to cause smooth muscles relaxation.15,20,21 nifedipine has become a widely used antihypertensive, owing to its ability to vasodilate the vasculature with rapid onset and its full reversibility on discontinuing the drug.15,20,21 With respect to use of drugs in pregnancy, nifedipine has been rated as a Category C drug.21 This means that its use is recommended i n all when likely maternal benefits are seen to outweigh possible fetal effects, as the teratogenic effect of the drug on the fetus is uncertain.21Once the BP was stabilized, introduction of labour commenced. It is recommended that women in presence of severe pre-eclampsia at or beyond 34 weeks gestation to be induced to prevent the progression of the disease to eclampsia.5 Induction of labour was stimulated via PGE2, which contains dinoprostone. Its mechanisms of action are analogous to the natural cervical ripening process.22,23 It is administered intravaginally to induce cervical ripening by directly softening the cervix, relaxing the cervical smooth muscle, and producing uterine contractions.22,23 There has been some debate of the use of dinoprostone in women with a history of asthma however PGE2 is a bronchodilator, thus not contraindicated to use, in JB case. 23For women whom there is a concern about the risk of eclampsia, it is recommended they receive magnesium sulfate as a prophylactic to protect against seizures, however in JBs case it was held off. The MAGPIE study demonstrates that the risk of eclampsia is more than halved in these women.5,8,24 However, it is also value noting that only 1-2 % of pre-eclamptic women in the UK had fitted in the absence of anticonvulsant treatment.24 After magnesium sulphate is administered, extra caution is needed due to the potency of the drug which can lead to respiratory depression especially where nifedipine has antecedently been taken.21 When magnesium sulphate has been prescribed, it should be move at least 24 hours post partum, as the risk of eclampsia does not resolve immediately after delivery. 5,14,15,24The majority of women following deliver with severe pre-eclampsia will require inpatient care for four days or more.5 JB was discharged on the forth day after careful review of her clinical signs. She was continued on her anti hypertensive treatment, and was to be reviewed as an outpatient. JB was also offered a postnatal follow up to discuss the events of the pregnancy as well as preconception counselling.5Section D Psychological and Social AspectsEpidemiologyPre-eclampsia complicates about 2-8 % of pregnancies and may have serious effects on the mother and child, which makes it important threat to pubic health in both true and developing countries. 2,24,25 Worldwide maternal mortality and morbidity from pre-eclampsia and eclampsia dwells high, it is estimated to be responsible for approximately 12 % of maternal deaths per year. 24 It is estimated that pre-eclampsia is accountable for 67% of the referrals to day care assessment units, 20% of antenatal admission and 25% of obstetric admissions to intensive care units in the UK .26The terms of treating pre-eclampsia varies between 500-10000 including the sum of hospital stay, induction costs, mode of birth, and pre-admission costs.17Due to improvements in antenatal care in the UK, syndrome of eclampsia and development of HELLP s yndrome is now rare.17 Eclampsia is reported in 1 in 2000 pregnancies.8,15,25 Also perinatal mortality rates are gradually improving, due to advances in antenatal care, early detection, improved anaesthesia, early delivery and expert neonatal paediatric care.15Factors associated with an increase risk of pre-eclampsia include nullparity, African-American ethnic background, multiple gestations, obesity, inveterate hypertension, molar pregnancy, family history of pre-eclampsia and a previous history of pre-eclampsia.4,8PsychosocialWomen who experience pre-eclampsia are exposed to large amount of psychological and social stress.27 These stress disturbances in turn may have a significant impact on the mother and baby during the important early months following delivery.27,28 Pre-eclampsia is a disease which develops without warning therefore as JB reported, she found herself having to deal with the unexpected and dramatic changes in fetal health risk as well as her own all of a sudden. The diagnosis of pre-eclampsia initiates feelings of fear, shock, and sometimes even disbelief particularly to those experiencing it well before term. Shock comes from the fact that they were being hospitalised and felt extemporary for delivery.27,28 JB was very unquiet after being admitted to hospital as she and her baby were regularly monitored and the actualisation of the serious consequences the disease possess.28,29There was also a sense of foiling as well as disempowerment as JB felt she had no control over the situation, and it was no longer just a personal responsibility. These feelings were amplified through the lack of sufficient information given on the disease, not completely informed about her actual situation, and on the medical decisions being made.27,28JB was very emotional as she felt responsible for developing pre-eclampsia and discerning about the risks she may have propelled on her child. Other psychological stresses were urgency of bed rest, boredom and bei ng separated from her partner during hospitalisation.28For those women who are diagnosed well before term, there is a greater risk of prematurity.28 These women being unprepared for the experience of delivering a premature baby can be a major component of shock and fear experienced. When progression of disease leads to complications, an soupcon caesarean section which is usually performed can be very traumatic experience and life can suddenly be thrown into chaos. 27,28 These women usually have less early contact with there baby and are less likely to breast feed as they are find from surgery.27,28For those who unfortunately loose their baby, they will be faced with the complex and traumatic events of grieving. This grieving process can be coupled to relationship problems as partners usually grieve differently.28Women with pre-eclampsia are at increased risk of reoccurrence with subsequent pregnancies therefore it is important they are advised of this if they wish to cerebrate ag ain.28,30The experience of severe pre-eclampsia may be overwhelmingly stressful. There is little time to adjust to new realities. Women may blame themselves adding the onus of guilt to the acute emotional chaos that follows diagnosis.ConclusionIn conclusion, pre-eclampsia remains a global problem and a clinical challenge. It is a significant cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. As the triggering factors remain unknown, prevention of the disease becomes difficult. At present, the only treatment option for pre-eclampsia is delivery, but this is not always simple and usually involves a risk-benefit balance between health of mother and the maturity of the fetus.