Friday, May 31, 2019
James Stills River of Earth presents the bleak realities faced by an Appalachian family that struggles with meeting their well-nigh basic needs. The Baldridges struggle with poverty is surely representative of many Appalachian families during the Depression era. The hardships of poverty, and its psychological and physical effects, are worsened by the isolation and genius of helplessness felt by the characters indoors River of Earth. Religion functions as the combatant to these struggles the song of Christianity offered by Still strays from the standard fundamentalist fire-and-brimstone preachings often associated with evangelism in the Appalachian region. Instead, a more emotional form of fundamentalism is found. Religion is a positive, empowering force that is both spiritually and socially freeing for the otherwise repressed and isolated characters within the novel.Within the text, Still offers little escape for the characters. They are grounded and focused on the realities at h and. There is little indulgence in fanciful things or things not of this world. Religion is one of the few escapes the characters are allowed. Still does not offer a standard fundamentalist take on Christianity, despite the strong fundamentalist strains that are often associated with Appalachia. Generally, fundamentalism strongly emphasizes innate depravity and the damnation sinners face. Instead, Still lightens the message. Sermons on hope, grace, and mercy are extended to the characters. Through this more forgiving transformation of Christianity, the characters are able to look forward to an eternal existence without adding any more stress to their current existences. It is suggested there is a tendency in Appalachia to slope towards forms of Christianity that pe... ...tianity that thoroughly responded to the needs of individuals. The isolation and desperation found in Depression-era rural Appalachia greatly influenced the type of Christianity that involved in the region. The n eed for society, community, control, and most significantly, optimism, spawned a form of Christianity that was both social and accommodating to sensitive emotional needs. Works CitedPhotiadis, John D., and John F. Schnabel. Religion A Persistent Institution In A changing Appalachia. Review Of Religious Research 19.1 (1977) 32. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2012.Still, James. River of Earth. Lexington The University of Kentucky Press, 1978. PrintTillich, Paul. Paul Tillich on the Method of Correlation. The Christian Theology Reader. Ed. Alister McGrath. West Sussex Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, 43-46. Print..
Thursday, May 30, 2019
At the height of the Cold War in 1959, Vice President Richard M. Nixon visited the Soviet Union to discuss policy-making ideology with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev. In what was labeled the kitchen debate, Nixon presented Khrushchev with an American model home that highlighted the merits of capitalism to a global audience. precisely as the politicians entered the Americanized kitchen, Nixon took a step further. Instead of keeping the focus on economic systems, the Vice President turned the discourse to the two nations construction of sex roles. While looking at an American dishwasher, Nixon said, This is our newest modelIn America, we like to make carriage easier for women I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do, is make life more easy for our housewives (teachingamericanhistory.org).While the accessibility of consumer products that reduced labor for homemakers was an achievement of American capitalism, Nixons comments promoted a new Ameri can vision of the family. The traditional family in Cold War culture, which featured men as breadwinners and women as homemakers, was now an important component of the American Dream. By referring to women as housewives, Nixon effectively reinforced the permeant sentiment that women could not only be homemakers in a financially prosperous capitalist society, but that it was also expected of them. As these expectations became fully engrained into the mainstream, gender roles became increasingly rigid, which discouraged many women from considering professional careers, let alone pursue them. As the Cold War era prompted Americans to find refuge in the traditional family, women were expected to operate within the framework of the home and in resul... ...represented an escape from the uncertainty of the future. But with the rise of a new traditional family in America, unload with strict and separate gender roles, women were denied opportunities in the workplace and forced to embr ace the task of homemaker. While Nixon argued in the kitchen debate that American strength rested on each members ability to rise and fall, the marginalization of woman in Cold War culture masterfully highlights the distance between political idealism and reality. Works CitedBooksMay, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound.Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. MoviesThe Home Economics Story.Online ResourcesThe Kitchen Debate. ArticlesStevenson, Adlai E. A Purpose for Modern Woman.Chambers, Whittaker. Witness.
I Spoon-fed Her Each Day Watching my gran get progressively weaker not wanting to confide the doctors diagnosis of terminal cancer and the prediction that she would exsert only for another year separated by thousands of miles from my parents, who had moved to the United States while I stayed in China with my grandmother-I lived a life so diverse from that of the average seventeen-year-old. In addition to caring for my grandmother, I was going to school and preparing for my final exams, the equivalent of the SATs. naan died on the day that I took the exam. Of the one one million million students who took the exam that day, I was ranked thirty-fourth and won the national merit scholarship. And yet I was in a state of complete shock my grandmother was gone and I felt paralyzed. But eventu entirelyy my memories of her inspired me to make a genuine passing in the lives of others. I decided to pursue a career in medicine. I joined the rest of my family in the U.S. and within six months was enrolled in the honors chopine at Mississippi State. Since there is no pre-med major, I was able to major in any subject and still complete the pre-med requirements I was advised to major in Philosophy or Drama to pull ahead my GPA. Instead, I decided to major in Math, a subject Ive always enjoyed. Though many lot told me I must be crazy and that my solid ground would not have sufficiently prepared me for the difficulty ofthe pre-med classes, I have earned A-plusses in all of the ten math courses I have interpreted so far, five of which were advanced classes. I have concentrated on opportunities that will prepare me for studies in clinical medicine, oncology and geriatrics. I learned of a prestigious research fellowship at Harvard and, although it was open only to upperclassmen, I applied and was accepted. I have taken honors classes in biology and have enjoyed the research hold up Ive done. Keeping in mind that my goal is ultimately to help people, Ive also devoted a quite a little of my time to volunteer opportunities I tutored math for exalted school students in my neighborhood and recently became a part-time volunteer at Memorial Hospital. It was frightfully difficult for me to leave China and create a completely new life after the death of my grandmother.Admissions Essay I Spoon-fed Her Each Day medicinal drug College Admissions Essays I Spoon-fed Her Each Day Watching my grandmother get progressively weaker not wanting to believe the doctors diagnosis of terminal cancer and the prediction that she would live only for another year separated by thousands of miles from my parents, who had moved to the United States while I stayed in China with my grandmother-I lived a life so different from that of the average seventeen-year-old. In addition to caring for my grandmother, I was going to school and preparing for my final exams, the equivalent of the SATs. Grandmother died on the day that I took the exam. Of the one million stud ents who took the exam that day, I was ranked thirty-fourth and won the national merit scholarship. And yet I was in a state of complete shock my grandmother was gone and I felt paralyzed. But eventually my memories of her inspired me to make a genuine difference in the lives of others. I decided to pursue a career in medicine. I joined the rest of my family in the U.S. and within six months was enrolled in the honors program at Mississippi State. Since there is no pre-med major, I was able to major in any subject and still complete the pre-med requirements I was advised to major in Philosophy or Drama to boost my GPA. Instead, I decided to major in Math, a subject Ive always enjoyed. Though many people told me I must be crazy and that my background would not have sufficiently prepared me for the difficulty ofthe pre-med classes, I have earned A-plusses in all of the ten math courses I have taken so far, five of which were advanced classes. I have concentrated on opportunities t hat will prepare me for studies in clinical medicine, oncology and geriatrics. I learned of a prestigious research fellowship at Harvard and, although it was open only to upperclassmen, I applied and was accepted. I have taken honors classes in biology and have enjoyed the research work Ive done. Keeping in mind that my goal is ultimately to help people, Ive also devoted a portion of my time to volunteer opportunities I tutored math for high school students in my neighborhood and recently became a part-time volunteer at Memorial Hospital. It was terribly difficult for me to leave China and create a completely new life after the death of my grandmother.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Jewish ResistanceWe must first realize that resistance was in no appearance a survival strategy. Yet, even when it seemed obvious that death was near inevitable, why did they not put up a fight? This argument is still confusing to m each holocaust historians, yet the arguments of Raul Hilberg and Yehuda Bauer offer insight to possible reasons why they did not fight and that resistance was more widespread than most throng think. basic of every(prenominal) we will look at Raul Hilbergs Two Thousand Years of Jewish Appeasement, to give us possible reasons why Jews simply voluntary followed orders to their death. We must see the destruction in a way that has two role-players the perpetrators and the victims. We will closely look at the role that Jews played in shut their own fate.Hilberg gives us five possible Jewish reactions to the situation they had been confronted with. First of all we will look at the possibility of resistance. It seems as though people would not willingly wa lk to their death, but 2000 years of appeasement was not easily changed. Along with the history of appeasement, the Jews were totally caught by surprise. They had little organization and so, could not put up a worthwhile fight even if they had wanted to. The SS also did a good job of mental warfare in that any resistance, no matter how significant, the perpetrators knew that the repercussions would affect the whole community and so it was hard to muster support for physical opposition. The second reaction was Jewish attempt to demonstrate the struggle more of a mental battle than a physical one. They tried to avert the full plans of the German army by using scripted and oral appeals. Jews also tried to anticipate German wishes. The SS found that the ghettos could be very productive and tried to milk them for all they could. In this way, the Jews deald that if they were able to be productive, they would be spared long enough because of their economic value for help to arrive. Anoth er possible reaction is flight. Only a few thousand Jews escaped from the ghettos in Russia and Poland, and very few escaped from the camps. This was the most viable survival option and yet very few took it. Von dem Bach talked about an unguarded escape passage to the Pripet Mar... ...was extremely difficult for many reasons. First of all, although there were armed undergrounds in two of the camps, they never acted, and other than this it was impossible to get arms to stage a real resistance. Second of all, the victims were so malnourished that they could not put up any reasonable fight. And lastly, they were in no mental state to fight the SS. They were instead, rubbish for their life every second of the day. They had in some ways given up on life and often times willing to obey all orders because it was the easiest way to do things. My immediate reaction is, how could they not resist when they know they are going to die. But, it is easy to say what you would do looking back at the situation. In many cases I believe that they did resist in the best way they knew how. They fought for life and did that by any means necessary. Many times they matt-up as though if they prolonged their life, that soon enough they would be saved. This seems as a very reasonable thought, so in my opinion I believe that they did resist more than Hilberg gives them credit for, but I believe they did it from lessons they had learned from the past 2000 years.
Delusions of American Society Exposed in Mind the Gap by Meredith OakesMind the Gap, by Meredith Oakes is an ironic playfulness that reflects umteen of the more undesirable traits of human nature. The play is set in the London Underground, a more or less universal setting. The ii main characters be Ginny, the mother, and Lawrence, her son. The tone of the play is set within the first page and the characters are established quickly as well. In Mind the Gap, Ginny and Larence are riding on a train to get to the psychiatrists office. He is rebellious and does non want to go or at least, if they have to go, he laments and whines for a car. (I told you to transmit the car.) He is being taken to the psychiatrist because in Ginnys eyes, he dresses like a slob, slouches, and sits around. The mother considers appearances to be very important and she is concerned that the son does not live up to her expectations. As they head towards Brixton, arguments ensue and human instinct takes ov er. The three main points in this play are hypocrisy, irony, and societys emphasis of materialism. Oakes establishes the tone of this play in the first page, when she differentiates between the two different voice volumes of Ginny. This is symbolic in that Ginny is also somewhat two-faced (hypocritical) about her sons behavior. As she switches between the two voice ranges, Emma (a minor character) comments and asks why they are going to Brixton. When Ginny masks the real cause of them going to Brixton, it mirrors how plurality in life want to feel accepted by society. They feel that they must conform to the social standards set in precedence. Anything different and people become afraid of what they do not know. Now at days, people are... ...olumbine. The nature of this poem is almost satirical in its mocking truth of the lacking side of human nature. In doing so, Mind the Gap can be compared to the absurd play, The Sand Box and the biting one-act of Baby With the Bathwater. The ironies of this story point out the delusional flaws of American society. People are usually in demur of criticisms concerning themselves. Other peoples faults are often times so clear to others but their own faults are masked or nonexistent in their eyes. Human nature is a combination of both good and bad. Oakes does a superb job of emphasizing the bad side of humanity. Humans are flawed and sometimes, a genius does not exist. In this play, there were no heroes either. However, Oakes is able to transcend that fact and concentrate on the main point of the play the hypocritical, self-conscious nature of mankind.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Kurt CobainKurt Donald Cobain was born on February 20,1967 in the town of Aberdeen,Washington. Aberdeen is on the west coast and is about 108 miles southwest ofSeattle. Aberdeen is a dreary place with about seven feet of rain a year. Kurtwas born to Mrs. Wendy Cobain and to Mr. Donald Cobain. Wendy was a homemaker.She had a very tight bond with Kurt. He was her first born. She had some otherchild three eld after she had Kurt. Her name was Kim. Donald was a mechanic.He was very into sports. He often tried to push Kurt into sports but Kurt justdidnt standardised them. Even though the Cobains didnt have much they seemed to doall right. Wendy dressed her children in the best clothes she could afford.They always looked like the best dressed kids in Aberdeen.Kurt was an extremely happy child. He would wake up everyday so happy. He wasalways filled with joy and always had a smile on his face. Kurt once said hisupbringing could be decribed as "white trash posing as middle class". Hismother told him to stay away from the scant(p) kids. She said they were dirty. SoKurt did and he as well would beat the up. Then in 4th grade he realized he likedthem better. Around that eon people started to notice that Kurt was very goodin art. Most of Kurts friends didnt really like things like art and music.He venerated these things so much he stopped making friends because he was different.Kurt was not such a health kid. His whole life he suffered chronic bronchitis.At age of seven he was diagnosed hyperactive. He was put on Ritalin. Thisseemed to make him stay up until four in the morning. They soon put him onsedatives. This did not work either. They made him retort asleep in school.Doctors told Wendy to try subtracting sugar and Red Dye 2 from his food. Thiswas the right prescription for Kurt. Sometime during the 8th grade Kurt wasdiagnosed with scloiosis. In his later years the weight of his guitar made itworse. Suicide also ran in his family. In 1979 a great uncle committed suicideand in 1984 an uncle also committed suicide.Kurt was in love with music since the age of two. He was brought up in amusical family. One of Wendys uncle had some records out in the 40s and 50s.Her brother was in a persuade and Roll Band. Her sister was in a country band andplayed the guitar. Almost everyone had some sort of musical talent.Kurt had always wanted to be a ... ... Kurt wakes twenty hours later and denies it was an attempt. At thistime Nirvana decides to cancel the rest of the tour and take a rest. Throughall of the tours their are rumors that tensions are mellow between the groupmembers. The press says there is constant fighting. There is even a rumor thatthe group is going to break up. To add to the cancellation of their tour theyalso cancel all their involvement in Lollapalooza.Then on March 18,1994 a startling thing happens. Kurt locks himself in a roomof his house. He get out not come out and he has a 38 caliber revolver with him.He threaten to k ill himself. Courtney Love once again calls the constabulary. Thepolice come and take control of the situation. They take the gun away.Some time around March 30,1994 Courtney calls for an intervention to get Kurtoff of drugs. She realizes he really does fill help. On March 31,1994 Kurtchecks in to the Exodus Recovery Center. It seems as though Kurt wants help.This doesnt last long. The day after he checks in he jumps a smother and it isthe last anyone sees of him. He is missingOn April 8th an electrician finds Kurt dead in home, from an apparent self--inflicted gun shot wound to the head.
Kurt CobainKurt Donald Cobain was born on February 20,1967 in the town of Aberdeen,Washington. Aberdeen is on the west coast and is active 108 miles s come outhwest ofSeattle. Aberdeen is a dreary place with about seven feet of rain a year. Kurtwas born to Mrs. Wendy Cobain and to Mr. Donald Cobain. Wendy was a homemaker.She had a truly tight bond with Kurt. He was her first born. She had anotherchild three age after she had Kurt. Her name was Kim. Donald was a mechanic.He was very into sports. He often tried to push Kurt into sports but Kurt justdidnt like them. Even though the Cobains didnt fill much they seemed to doall right. Wendy dressed her children in the best clothes she could afford.They always looked like the best dressed kids in Aberdeen.Kurt was an extremely happy child. He would wake up everyday so happy. He wasalways filled with joy and always had a smile on his face. Kurt once said his upbringing could be decribed as "white trash posing as middle class". Hismother told him to stay away from the poor kids. She said they were dirty. SoKurt did and he also would beat the up. Then in 4th grade he realized he likedthem better. Around that time people started to notice that Kurt was very goodin art. Most of Kurts friends didnt really like things like art and music.He loved these things so much he stopped making friends because he was different.Kurt was not such a health kid. His whole life he suffered chronic bronchitis.At age of seven he was diagnosed hyperactive. He was put on Ritalin. Thisseemed to make him stay up until four in the morning. They soon put him onsedatives. This did not work either. They made him fall asleep in school.Doctors told Wendy to exertion subtracting sugar and Red Dye 2 from his food. Thiswas the right prescription for Kurt. Sometime during the 8th grade Kurt wasdiagnosed with scloiosis. In his later years the weight of his guitar made itworse. suicide also ran in his family. In 1979 a great uncle committed s uicideand in 1984 an uncle also committed suicide.Kurt was in love with music since the age of two. He was brought up in amusical family. One of Wendys uncle had some records out in the 40s and 50s.Her brother was in a Rock and Roll Band. Her sister was in a country band andplayed the guitar. Almost everyone had some sort of musical talent.Kurt had always wanted to be a ... ... Kurt wakes twenty hours later and denies it was an attempt. At thistime Nirvana decides to cancel the rest of the tour and take a rest. Throughall of the tours their are rumors that tensions are high between the groupmembers. The labor says there is constant fighting. There is even a rumor thatthe group is going to break up. To add to the cancellation of their tour theyalso cancel all their booking in Lollapalooza.Then on March 18,1994 a startling thing happens. Kurt locks himself in a roomof his house. He will not come out and he has a 38 caliber revolver with him.He threaten to kill himself. Courtney Lov e once again calls the police. Thepolice come and take oblige of the situation. They take the gun away.Some time around March 30,1994 Courtney calls for an intervention to get Kurtoff of drugs. She realizes he really does need help. On March 31,1994 Kurtchecks in to the Exodus Recovery Center. It seems as though Kurt wants help.This doesnt last long. The day after he checks in he jumps a wall and it isthe last anyone sees of him. He is lacking(p)On April 8th an electrician finds Kurt dead in home, from an apparent self--inflicted gun shot wound to the head.
Monday, May 27, 2019
F? 151. Assets become liabilities when they expire. F152. Revenue results from collection of answer foring clays receivable. F153. A go withs fiscal stratum must correspond to the calendar year. T154. Ac librateing closures should be of equal length to facilitate comparison between periods. T155. When there is no direct connection between revenues and be, the costs ar placementatically allocated among the periods benefitted. T156. Applying accrual tarradiddleing results in a much accurate measurement of profit for the period than does the silver basis of accounting. F157. Adjusting entries affect cash flows in the current period.T158. Revenue crowd out non be receiptd unless delivery of goods has occurred or services bring forth been rendered. F159. Accrual accounting recognizes revenues and costs at the point that cash changes hands. F160. A deferral is the recognition of an expense that has arisen nonwithstanding has not yet been enter. T161. Adjusting entries atomic number 18 useful in apportioning costs among two or more accounting periods. T162. An adjusting unveiling admits at least one equilibrise stable gear account and at least one income story account. T163. Recording incurred exactly unpaid expenses is an example of an accrual. F164.If all transactions were originally save in conformity with GAAP, there would be no need for adjusting entries at the end of the period. T165. Every adjusting entry must change both an income arguing account and a remnant sheet account. F166. When the reduction in prepaid expenses is not properly put down, this causes the asset accounts and expense accounts to be understated. T167. Accumulated depreciation may be referred to as a contra-asset account. T168. The adjustment to record depreciation of property and equipment consists of a debit to depreciation expense and reliance to accumulated depreciation.T169. When services argon not paid for until they find been performed, the accrued e xpense is recorded by an adjusting entry at the end of the accounting period. T170. The amount of accrued revenues is recorded by debiting an asset account and character referenceing an income account. F171. Acquiring a computer for cash is just exchanging one asset for an early(a) and will not result in an expense even in future periods. F172. A decrease in an expense account is the equivalent of a decrease in possessors justness. F173. Accrued revenue is a term used to describe revenue that has been received but not yet earned. T174.Book value is the original cost of a building less depreciation for the year. F175. The adjusting entry to allocate part of a cost of a one-year fire insurance policy to expense will cause list assets to increase. T176. The adjusting entry to recognize earned commission revenues, not previously recorded or billed will cause total assets to increase. F177. The adjusting entry to recognize an expense which is unrecorded and unpaid will cause total as sets to increase. T178. The adjusting entry to recognize earned revenues which was received in advance will cause total liabilities to decrease.F179. The maximum period covered by a worksheet is 6 months. T180. Withdrawals is recorded in the proportion winding-sheet debit editorial of the worksheet. F181. The Owners capital account is shown in the Income Statement attribute column in the worksheet. F182. The Owners insularity account will not reckon on an adjusted trial sleep on the worksheet. F183. Accumulated depreciation surfaces on the income statement. T184. The worksheet is used to bring off together up-to-date account equilibrises needed to prepare the fiscal statements. F185.Financial statements are prepared from the adjusted trial balance of the worksheet. F186. Because adjusting entries are recorded on a worksheet, they do not need to be journalized or posted. T187. A loss occurs when there are more expenses than revenue. T188. If revenue and expenses were equal for an accounting period, the result would be n both profit nor loss. T189. The worksheet is not presented with the financial statements. T190. The third step in worksheet preparation is to enter the adjusted account balances in the adjusted trial balance column.T191. The worksheet is a convenient device for completing the accounting cycle. T192. after(prenominal) all indispensable adjustments are entered in the worksheet, the two adjustment columns are totaled to quiz the equality of debits and credits. F193. Income and expense accounts are moved to the balance sheet columns of the worksheet. F194. Assets, liabilities capital and withdrawal accounts are extended to the income statement column of the worksheet. T195. The balance of the Unearned Revenues account will appear in the balance sheet credit column of the worksheet. F196.The balance sheet credit column of the worksheet normally contains only the liability and equity accounts. F197. Where the income statement column of the worksheet are totaled the excess of debits over credits is called profit. F198. The totals of the balance sheet columns of the worksheet will usually be the aforesaid(prenominal) as the totals appearance in the formal balance sheet. T199. The last step in the worksheet preparation is to enter the profit and loss cypher as a balancing figure in the income statement and balance sheet columns. T200. The worksheet helps the accountant discover existing posting and calculation errors.T201. If an asset has been carried to the debit column of the income statement and a homogeneous error occurred involving income or liabilities, the worksheet may appear to be correct but the profit figure is actually misstated. F202. Financial statements are confidential documents which are visible(prenominal) only to the owner of the chore. T203. The focal point of the accounting cycle is the financial statements. T204. The income statement shows the types and mounts of revenues and expenses fo r the accounting period. F205. The excess of expenses over revenues is called loss. F206.Expenses are increases in equity caused by the entitys income-generating activities. F207. Cash loaned from a bank constitutes income. F208. The statement of changes in equity uses only the profit figure from the income statement to explain the change in equity. T209. The balance sheet provides the financial statement user the type and amount of each asset, liability and capital account at a particular date. T210. The balance sheet is prepared based on the final equity balance in the statement of changes in equity. F211. The account form of balance sheet shows assets, liabilities and equity in a vertical sequence.T212. Financial flexibility is the ability to take effective actions to alter the amounts and timings of cash flows so that it can respond to unexpected needs and opportunities. T213. Solvency refers to the accessibility of cash over the longer term to meet financial commitments as the y fall due. T214. Liquidity refers to the availability of cash in the near future later taking account of the financial commitments over this period. T215. An income statement refers to the specified period while a balance sheet shows the financial position of the entity at a particular date. T216.Cash flow statement reports the amount of cash received and disbursed during the period. T217. Notes to financial statements include narrative descriptions or more detailed analyses of amounts shown on the face of the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and statement in changes in equity. T218. Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices adopted by an enterprise in preparing and presenting financial statements. F219. The corrupt of an equipment is an example of a financing activity. T220. Buying and producing goods and services are examples of direct activities.T221. The purchase of land is an example of an investing activity . F222. Paying taxes to the government is an example of financing activity. T223. Financial position may be assessed by referring to the balance sheet. T224. The statement in changes in equity discloses the withdrawals during the period. F225. The heading of the income statement might include the As of December 31, 2011. T226. The balance sheet is also known as the statement of financial position. T227. The statement of cash flows discloses significant events related to the operating, investing and financing activities of the business.T228. The statement of changes in equity relates the income statement to the balance sheet by showing how the owners capital account changed during the accounting period. F229. The account Commissions Earned would appear on the balance sheet. F230. The account Wages Payable would appear in the income statement. T231. Financial statements cannot be prepared correctly until all the accounts have been adjusted. F232. A worksheet is more useful for a smal l company than a large one. T233. Working papers provide a written record of the work performed by an accountant or auditor. T234.The worksheet is a type of accountants working paper. F235. The amount for owners withdrawal will appear in the income statement column of a worksheet. T236. The adjusted trial balance columns of the worksheet are prepared by combining the trial balance and adjustments column. T237. When the Income Statement columns of the worksheet are initially footed, they should be out of balance by the amount of profit and loss. F238. When the balance sheet columns of the worksheet are initially footed, they should be in balance. F239. The worksheet should be prepared after the formal financial statements have been prepared.T240. An important use of the worksheet is an aid in the preparation of financial statements. 241. The worksheet is prepared after the formal adjusting and block entries. 242. On a worksheet, the balance of the owners Capital account is its endin g amount for the period. 243. The amount placed opposite the owners Capital account in the Balance Sheet columns of the worksheet is the amount to be reflected for owners Capital on the Balance Sheet. 244. The balances of the Accumulated Depreciation accounts will appear on the credit office of the worksheets Balance Sheet Columns. 245.The balance sheet may be prepared by referring solely to the Balance Sheet columns of the worksheet. 246. When adjusting entries are entered onto a worksheet, it is not necessary to record them in the ecumenic journal. 247. Total assets, total liabilities and owners equity on the balance sheet are the same as the totals of the Balance Sheet columns on the worksheet. 248. The amount of owners withdrawals can be found on the worksheet. 249. After the adjusting and closing entries have been recorded and posted, the general script accounts that appear on the balance sheet have no balances. 250.General account balances agree with those in the financial statements even before adjusting and closing entries are recorded and posted. 251. The income summary account is used to close the income and expense accounts. 252. The balance of the owners Capital account represents the cumulative cyberspace result of income, expense and withdrawal transactions. 253. Closing entries clear income and expense accounts at the end of the period. 254. The post-closing trial balance contains asset, liability, withdrawal and capital accounts. 255. The final trial balance is called a post-closing trial balance. 56. A reversing entry is a journal entry which is the exact opposite of a related adjusting entry made at the end of the period. 257. To simplify the recording of fix transactions in the next accounting period, all adjusting journal entries are reversed. 258. Post-closing trial balance tests the equality of the accounts after adjustments and the closing entries are posted. 259. Trial balances are prepared to ensure that no entries have been omitt ed. 260. In the accounting cycle, closing entries are prepared before adjusting entries. 261.In the accounting cycle, information from source documents is initially recorded in the journal. 262. Nominal accounts are reduced to zero by closing entries. 263. Closing entries deal primarily with the balances of real accounts. 264. The only accounts that are disagreeable are the income statement accounts. 265. Closing entries result in the transfer of profit or loss into the owners Capital account. 266. After all closing entries have been entered and posted, the balance of the income summary account will be zero. 267. Depreciation Expense-Building is a permanent account. 68. Supplies expense is a temporary account. 269. A revenue account is closed with a credit to the revenue account and a debit to income summary. 270. An expense account is closed with a debit to the expense account and a credit to income summary.271. Income Summary is closed with a debit to income summary and a credit to the owners Withdrawals account. 272. When profit or loss is exactly zero, one of the usual closing entries will be avoided. 273. The Income Summary account appears in the income statement. 274. Temporary accounts are also known as real accounts. 75. During the closing process, revenues are transferred to the credit side of the Income Summary account. 276. During the closing process, expenses are transferred to the credit side of the Income Summary account. 277. All nominal accounts must be closed before the Income Summary account can be closed. 278. The post-closing trial balance will have fewer accounts than the adjusted trial balance. 279. The balances of all accounts that appear on the balance sheet are the same on the adjusted trial balance as they are on a post closing trial balance. 280.There is sufficient information on a post-closing trial balance to prepare an income statement. 281. The post-closing trial balance will contain only real accounts. 282. The Income Summary a ccount will appear on the post-closing trial balance. 283. There is sufficient information on a post-closing trial balance to prepare a balance sheet. 284. There is sufficient information on a post-closing trial balance to prepare a statement of changes in equity. 285. If the post-closing trial balance does not balance, then the error/s definitely occurred at some point during the closing process. 86. The adjusting entries involving Rent Receivable and Salaries Payable could be reversed. 287. The adjusting entries involving Depreciation Expense-Building and Supplies Expense could be reversed. 288. A reversing entry will include either a debit to a revenue account or a credit to an expnseaccount. 289. Reversing entries are never required. 290. Reversing entries can be made for deferrals but not for accruals. 291. Reversing entries are made to correct errors in the account. 292. The purpose of reversing entry is to simplify the bookkeeping process. 293.Adjusting entries are all dated as at the first twenty-four hours of the new accounting period. 294. Closing entries can be prepared by referring solely to the income statement columns of the worksheet. 295. The chart of accounts for a production entity differs from that of a service entity. 296. The diversion between revenue from gross gross revenue and cost of sales is operating income. 297. For cash sales, the operating cycle is from cash to pedigree to accounts receivable and back to cash. 298. The bill of burden is a document prepared by the seller detailing the terms of delivery. 99. A validated deposit slip indicates that cash and checks were actually deposited. 300. Discounts offered to the buyer to make headway early payment are trade discounts. 301. Cash discounts are called purchase discounts from the buyers viewpoint. 302. The sales discounts account is a contra-income account and will have a debit balance. 303. A credit term of 2/10 n/30 means that the buyer may deduct 3% from the throwaway if payment is made inwardly 10 days from the end of the month. 304. Purchases return and allowances is a deduction from purchases. 305.The cost of merchandise purchased during the period is determined by subtracting from the earn purchases the amount of transportation costs incurred during the period. 306. The purchase of equipment not for resale should be debited to the purchases account. 307. If the seller is to shoulder the cost of delivery, the term is stated as F. O. B destination. 308. The term lode prepaid or collect will dictate who shoulders the transportation costs. 309. The two main systems for accounting for merchandise are periodic and invariable. 310. The perpetual gillyflower system requires recording the cost of each sale as it occurs. 11. There is no need for a physical fund count in the perpetual roll system. 312. The debit balance in the inventory account in the trial balance under the periodic inventory system is the amount of inventory at the end of the c urrent year.313. The ending inventory of one period is the beginning inventory of the next period. 314. The balance in the merchandise inventory account at the beginning of the period represents the cost of merchandise on hand at that time. 315. The operating cycle involves the purchase and sale of inventory as well as the subsequent payment for purchase and collection of cash. 16. A business can shorten its operating cycle by increasing the percentage of cash sales and reducing the percentage of credit sales.317. Merchandise inventory could include goods in transit. 318. An advantage of using the periodic inventory system is that it requires less recordkeeping than the perpetual inventory system. 319. The periodic inventory system relies on a physical count of merchandise for its balance sheet account. 320. Under the periodic inventory system, the cost of goods change is treated as an account. 321. The periodic inventory system provides an up-to-date inventory on hand.322. Summing ending merchandise inventory and cost of goods change gives the cost of goods unattached for sale. 323. A physical inventory is usually taken at the end of the accounting period. 324. Under the periodic inventory system , purchases of merchandise are not recorded in the Merchandise Inventory account. 325. A company would be more likely to know the amount of inventory on hand if I it used the periodic inventory system ra of all merchandisether than the perpetual inventory system. 326. Taking a physical inventory refers to making a count of all merchandise on hand at a particular time. 327.When the periodic inventory system is used , a physical inventory should be taken at the end of the fiscal year. 328. The income statement of a company that provides services only will not have cost of goods sold. 329. For a trade company, the difference between the net sales and operating expenses is called a gross margin. 330. Sales return and allowances is described a contra-revenue account. 331. On the income statement of a selling concern, profit is the amount by which net sales exceed operating expenses. 332. Transportation out is included in the cost of goods sold calculation. 33. Advertising expense appears as a selling expense on the income statement. 334. Transportation in is considered a cost of merchandise purchased. 335. The difference between gross sales and net sales is equal to the sum of sales discounts and sales returns and allowances.336. When the terms of sale include a sales discount, it usually is advisable for the buyer to pay within the discount period. 337. The terms 2/10, n/30 mean that a 2% discount is allowed on payments made over 10 days but before 30 days after the invoice date. 338. Terms 2/10, n/30 is an example of a trade discount. 39. Goods should be recorded at their list price less any trade discounts involved. 340. FOB Shipping point means that the seller incurs the shipping costs. 341. Under the perpetual inventory system, the cost of merchandise is debited to Merchandise Inventory at the time of purchase.342. The merchandise inventory account is not affected when a sales allowance is granted. 343. Ending merchandise inventory is included in the calculation of cost of goods available for sale. 344. Ending merchandise inventory for year 1 automatically becomes the beginning inventory for year 2. 45. The calculation of cost of goods available for sale during the year is not affected by the previous years ending inventory. 346. The change in inventory level from the beginning to the end of the year affect cost of goods sold. 347. Transportation In is treated as a deduction in the cost of goods sold section of the income statement. 348. Under the periodic inventory system, the Purchases account is used to accumulate all purchases of merchandise for resale.349. Cost of goods sold is the primary difference between a merchandising and a service business income statement. 350. Debiting income summary and crediting begin ning merchandise inventory eliminates the beginning inventory at the end of the period. 351. Cost of goods sold is a major expense of a merchandising business. 352. Using the nature of expense method of presenting expenses in the income statement has the advantage of simplicity because no allocation of operating expenses between functional classifications is necessary. 353. The function of expense method reports gross margin and income from operations. 354. Operating income is not computed in the nature of expense method.355.Gross margin from sales is the income that the business would have made if all goods available for sale had been sold during the period. 356. The excess of gross profit over operating expenses is called operating profit. 357. In the worksheet, the ending inventory amount will appear in the income statement credit column and the balance sheet debit column. 358. The determination of net cost of purchase would include addition of transportation out. 359. The tradit ional balance sheet arrangement of assets on the left-hand side with the liabilities and owners equity on the right-hand side is called the report form. 360. Net sales is not an account name. 361. In the income statement, operating expenses are classified as selling expenses, administrative expenses and other operating expenses. 362. The sales return and allowances has a normal debit balance. 363. The closing entry for transportation in debits purchases and credits income summary. 364. Both Transportation In and Transportation Out accounts are closed by crediting the accounts. 365. On the worksheet of a merchandising company that uses the perpetual inventory system, the Merchandise inventory account balance is not adjusted.366.When using the perpetual inventory system, the Merchandise inventory account will not appear in the closing entries. 367. The worksheet of a merchandising company that uses the perpetual inventory system will not have a Transportation In account. 368. When pre paring a worksheet for a merchandising company that uses the perpetual inventory system, the cost of goods sold can be derived from the balances of several account in the income statement column. 369. Under the perpetual inventory system, the ending merchandise inventory balance is closed at the same time as cost of goods sold.370.When preparing a worksheet for a merchandising company that uses the periodic inventory system, the merchandise inventory amount shown on the trial balance will be carried over the Balance Sheet debit column. 371. On the worksheet of a merchandising company that uses the periodic inventory system, both Purchase and Purchases Returns and Allowances appear in the Income Statement column. 372. The Purchases account is closed to the Merchandise Inventory account. 373. The ending inventory amount appears in both Income Statement columns on the worksheet of a merchandising company that uses the periodic inventory system. 74. Under the periodic inventory system, the Merchandise Inventory account appears in the closing entries made at the end of the period. 375. When preparing closing entries under the periodic inventory system, Sales, Purchases Returns an Allowances are both closed in the same entry. 376. Sales discount is a contra-revenue account with a normal credit balance.377. Purchases discount would be recorded as a credit. 378. Transactions involving the payment of cash for any purpose are usually recorded in the cash journal. 379. Special journals are modified in practice to adapt to the specific needs of an entity. 80. The primary ledger that contains all the balance sheet accounts and income statement accounts is called the general ledger. 381. At the end of each month, the total of the amount column of the sales journal is posted as a debit to accounts receivable and credit to sales. 382. After postings have been completed for the month, if the sum of the balances in the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger does not agree with t he balance of the accounts receivable In the general ledger, the errors must be located and corrected. 383. Sales on ccount of office equipment used in the business would be recorded in the sales journal.384. Each amount in the other accounts column of the cash receipts journal must be posted individually to the appropriate general ledger account. 385. When there are numerous accounts with a common characteristic, it is common to place them in a separate ledger called a detail ledger. 386. The sale of merchandise for cash is recorded in the sales journal. 387. The total of the other accounts column of the cash receipts journal is not posted to the general ledger. 88. When special journals, control accounts, and subsidiary ledgers are used, no posting to any ledger is performed until the end of the month. 389. For each transaction recorded in the purchases journal, the credit is entered in the accounts payable column. 390. Acquisitions on account which are not provided for in a speci al debit column are recorded in the other accounts column in the purchases journal. 391. Debits to creditors accounts for invoices paid are recorded in the accounts payable debit column of the cash payments journal. 392.Comparing the purchase order with the receiving report will show that all the goods ordered actually arrived and all goods that arrived were actually ordered. 393. The total of the accounts payable in the cash payments journal is posted at the end of the month as a debit to accounts payable and a credit to cash. 394. When customers are allowed to return for credit to their accounts, these transactions are recorded in the general journal. 395. A check record is used to record all expenditures. 396. The voucher register is a substitute for a sales journal. 397. The voucher register takes the place of the cash payments journal.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Heineken Netherlands B. V. Reengineering IS/IT To Enable Customer Oriented Supply Chain Management In June 1993, Jan Janssen, financial manager of Heineken Nether lands B. V. and the person responsible for learning Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT), and his IS manager, Rob Pietersen, faced the challenge of ruining an IS/IT configuration that would add measure to the melody and support the ongoing transformation of Heinekens supply set up worry system.This system was extensive, not only supplying the Dutch home commercialize, but in any case providing a significant part of the supply to much than 100 export countries served by the Heineken Group. Supply chain steering of import to enterprise- across-the-board transformation. Management was committed to a movement-driven organization, customer swear out partnerships, 24-hour delivery headliner judgment of conviction, major innovations in the transport system, and resulting throws in the way people break do wned. And Janssen k youthful that all of these-and more-required fundamental motleys in the way this raw reach was to be supported by instruction systems and engineering.Janssen was convinced that the effective management of education as well as a more arrogate IT infrastructure were little to achieving Heinekens goals of increased flexibility, greater coordination, and a sharper focus on customer needs. In his mind, the change program initiated in 1990 in the IS/IT expanse had just been the beginning. Now, he and Pietersen needed to design an nurture systems and technology backbone that would be flexible enough to evolve with the changing line needs and reconcile to continuous changes in technology.HEINEKEN NETHERLANDS B. V. Heineken Netherlands B. V. was the principal operating familiarity responsible for operations in Heinekens home market. It also accounted for a significant part of Heineken N. V. s orbicular exports. Of the 60. 4 million hectoliters of beer produc ed worldwide under the supervision of the Heineken Group in 1994, a significant portion was produced in the companys ii Dutch breweries- Zoeterwoude and s-Hertogenbosch (Den Bosch).Likewise, 11 pct of the Heineken Groups sales took step to the fore in the domestic market, and more than 5400 employees worked for Heineken Netherlands. Supply Chain Management The supply chain at Heineken Netherlands began with the receipt of the raw materials that went into the brewing process, and continue through packaging, distribution, and delivery. Brewing took six weeks it began with the malt mixture of barley and ended with the filtering of the beer after fermentation.Depending on the distribution channel, the beer was then big bucksd in one-way or returnable bottles or cans of different sizes and labels, put in kegs, or delivered in bulk. The variety of outlets meant that the company had to manage differences in response time (beer for the domestic market was produced to stock, while exporte d beer was produced to order) and troika distinct distribution channels. While each channel consisted mainly of the same steps from the receipt of raw materials through brewing, they differed greatly in packaging and distribution.Beer could be distributed to either on-premise outlets (hotels, restaurants, and cafes, where it was delivered in kegs or poured at a time into cellar beer tanks), off-premise outlets (supermarkets, grocery and liquor stores, where it was sold in a variety of bottle and parcel of land sizes for home consumption), or to export markets (export deliveries were made to order). Ongoing Transformation With key customers requesting faster response times, the development of a process-driven view of Heinekens supply chain activities became critical.The company started the transformation of its supply chain management system by creating customer-service partnerships with its largest domestic customers. The overall objective was to improve the logistics chain drama tically for these customers. In response, delivery spend times were reduced and the transport system was changed. However, the supply chain transformation was seen as a never-ending process. New Customer-Service Partnerships In these rude(a) service partnerships, Heineken was call for to reduce the time from the placement of the ingathering order to the actual delivery.Before, this delivery lead time had been three days, but the supermarket chains wanted Heineken to supply their w behouses in the Netherlands in 24 hours. Each of the warehouses carried only 8 hours of stock at any time, so the supermarket chains depended on quick and flexible delivery to deem low inventories and fast response times. To further enhance its close cooperation with customers, Heineken had embarked on a pilot test of a new logistics improvement called Co fall out torship with Albert Heijn, the largest supermarket chain in the Netherlands.Comakership was part of Albert Heijns Efficient Customer Respo nse project, Today for Tomorrow. The Albert Heijn retail stores sent their sales data as scanning data to the computer in their central head office. There, the data for Heineken products were scanned out and separated. The beer sales tuition was then relayed via a standard EDI system (provided by a value-added network operator) from the central office of Albert Heijn directly to Heinekens Zoeterwoude brewery. Heineken was usually able to deliver within 18 hours.Although the pilot had been initiated in only one of Albert Heijns distribution centers (and the restore of stores it served), it had already resulted in lower lead times, decreased costs, and less complexity in the distribution system. Moving to a 24-Hour Delivery Lead Tinge As a result of these successes, brighten management concluded that delivery lead time could be cut to 24 hours for most domestic customers. However, it would require major shifts in the companys stock levels, distribution centers, work organization, transport system, organizational structure, and information systems.The 24-hour lead time allowed for greater stock turnover and for lower stock levels in the customer distribution centers. There was, however, more interdepot traffic and higher stocks of packaging material (returnables) on the brewery premises (which had been located elsewhere along the supply chain). But management believed that as less quantity inventory was held in the system, these packaging material stocks might be reduced over time. New Transport System Until 1991, Heineken Netherlands had contracted out the transportation of its products from the two breweries to about 50 transporters.All of them apply a lorry-trailer system with dedicated device drivers-a driver and his truck could make an average of 2. 1 deliveries per day. To meet the 24-hour lead time, Heineken had to completely change the fleet apply for transport and reduce the number of transporters from 50 to 10. Heineken then contracted 4 cabin t rucks from each transporter (40 cabin trucks in total) and pay them for the use of the trailers. The ability of the driver to move from one trailer to an different without waiting for unloading meant that he could make an average of 2. deliveries per day (a cost lessening of approximately G1. 5 million ). New Information Management (IM) Needs Heinekens customer-service partnership with Albert Heijn and the other changes Heineken had implemented in its supply chain activities brought new information requirements to support the more stringent delivery dictates. With the pilot testing of the Comakership logistics improvement, Heineken needed to implement systems which could manage this new transfer of information, and make appropriate modifications in work activities and organizational structure.Furthermore, the new IS/IT infrastructure needed to be flexible enough to handle and reflect individual retailer and customer beer purchasing patterns. In the linguistic context of these cha nges in supply chain activities, Janssen reflected on the beginnings of the transformation of IS/IT The transformation of IS/IT and the shifts occurring in our supply chain activities were concurrent without causality. That is very strange, but it just happened that way. I cant allege to you that it is a chicken and egg kind of story. Of course, there was a link but not an explicit one. Somewhere in our minds, when you do one you do the other, too.Jansen knew that the relationship between information management, information systems, and information technology had to be clearly defined to have optimum support for the new approaches to value creation. Information management focused on supporting customers and creating new bundles of goods and services. Information systems focused on developing applications software, managing data, and supporting the new business processes. Finally, information technology tie in primarily to data and text services, and the underlying operating syst ems, interfaces, hardware, and networks.PHASE l RECOGNIZING THE NEED FOR CHANGE In July 1989, at the beginning of all the changes at Heineken, Janssen (then at central office and responsible for IS/IT worldwide) received a request for a second mainframe at Heineken Netherlands, costing G6 million (with another G6 million required in three to four years) Janssen brought in the consulting firm Nolan, Norton, Inc. to evaluate the IS/IT infrastructure, first at the corporate level and then at the operating company level for Heineken Netherlands A final cause to purchase a second mainframe focused everybody on our IS/IT infrastructure.You have to have some kind of crisis to get people thinking. IS/IT Benchmarking Nolan, Norton, Inc. benchmarked Heinekens IS/IT cost structure against the drinking industry IS/IT average and it was clear that Heineken was indeed not competitive-the company was spending twice the money for half the functionality. The Nolan, Norton report confirmed what a very wide group of the drug users thought, Janssen commented. In response, management recommended decentralizing the data center and having each business area manage its own computing resources.At the same time, Janssen asked Heineken Netherlands, the largest operating company, to develop a new IS/IT plan establish on new computer technology, which meant looking for mid-range platforms, decentralized computing, and standard software packages, rather than developing customized programs for every new application-previously the standard practice. Before determining an appropriate IS/IT plan, Janssen made sure that information management scans were conducted in every functional area. Managers were asked, What do you need and how can that used to create information plans.Working with KPMG Management Consultants and Nolan, Norton, Inc. , Janssen developed a list of priorities for IS/IT and selected a new IT platform (IBM AS/400)-both were accepted in July 1990 The AS/400 became the bur den of our new IT platform for two reasons first, we had been a client with IBM for roughly 40 years, and it was not their fault that we used their mainframes in the wrong way second, we already knew that capacious masses of application software were being written for the AS/400, as a quick scan easily confirmed.Furthermore, we were starting to think about an appropriate IT architecture and we were considering the possibility of using personal computers as peripherals linked together through local area and wide area networks. Implementation of the New IS/IT devise Before the end of 1990, Janssen was appointed financial manager. He became the person responsible for IS/IT at Heineken Netherlands and was to oversee the implementation of the new IS/IT plan. Janssen concluded that outsourcing would play a critical role in this process The decision to outsource was part of the plan.When we came to the conclusion that a major change was necessary, that we should look for midrange compu ters, that we should go for standard software, that we should not go for dumb terminals but for personal computers as peripherals, it became clear to us that this was a big operation and we could not evolve to it. We could not manage just to hold the old systems in the air with all the problems and have enough management attention for building up the new systems. So we told the organization, Gentlemen, we are going to outsourcers, and we are going to freeze the applications to free up management time. PHASE 3 OUTSOURCING TO DEVELOP THE NEW IS/IT INFRASTRUCTURE Outsourcing enabled the IS group to keep the old mainframe applications data track while it developed a new IT approach-focusing on the development of its client/server distributed processing infrastructure, the appropriate new IT architecture, and the IS people and skills to achieve these new objectives. Outsourcing In 1991, after scanning the outsourcers market, Janssen chose Electronic Data Systems (EDS), the largest prov ider of computer services in the United States.EDS provided the expertise and infrastructure required to meet Heinekens information systems and technology needs, and career possibilities for Heinekens mainframe personnel, both vital to the palmy transformation of its IS/IT infrastructure. Finally, the five-year contract (with declining involvement each year) provided guaranteed continuity while Heineken maintained control. The plan indicated that the last mainframe program would be replaced in 1996 and the contract with EDS would end. Development of the New IT Architecture The development of the new IT architecture took place almost concurrentlyWe go in two directions-one, to outsource our operational concerns, and two, to focus on our new architecture development, eventually replacing everything which was on the mainframe with standard packages on AS/400s. With the decision to downsize-to move off the mainframe platform-and to decentralize the information management and systems, Janssen chose a comprehensive client/server strategy using a cabal of workstations, local and wide area networks, mid-range systems such as AS/400s, and local area servers to complete the technology architecture. (Refer to Figure 1 for Heinekens IT architecture. Personal computers became Heineken workstations to drop dead the confusion and mess of having 2000 personal workstations-in this way, every workstation had the same nail downup. Furthermore, the sales force began using Notebooks for customer sensing and information sharing. Changing Over to Standard Packages and ontogenesis Greater Flexibility to Serve the Business In 1993, Rob Pietersen became IS manager at Heineken Netherlands. He believed that the decentralized IS/IT operations gave more computer power to the people, and enabled the user to become the process owner.Old mainframe programs were replaced with new standard application packages that covered all the functions in the supply chain. Heineken started this change over by focusing on the software applications dealing with clients order entry, delivery, transport, invoicing, and accounts receivable. Selecting Standard Software Packages To increase flexibility and customer responsiveness, Pietersen knew that Heineken had to shift from the waterfall approach to the development of standard software packages At that time in the mainframe orld, we were developing software applications using a methodology often referred to as the waterfall. You started with a requirements definition from the users, developed a design and the statute to implement that design (getting signoffs at each point along the way). You put the code in production, tested the code, released the code into operation and then you maintained it. When you follow the code, you went back to the users and asked them if this was what they wanted, and often they said What? This waterfall process took 18 to 36 months or more, and by the time it was completed, the users requirements ofte n had changed. Pietersen began using the PILS (Project Integral Logistics) named after the successful approach developed to select appropriate logistics software to test and select standard software packages (refer to Figure 2). The PILS approach involved Oidentifying appropriate software packages Osetting the top two package vendors against one another in a shoot-out as in the American Wild West-where the specific elements of each software package were compared and contrastedO implementing it O evaluating its performance. For IS people, this meant moving from COBOL programming to developing a thorough knowledge of the business. Pietersen chose PRISM for the logistics area and J D Edwards for the financial area. Pietersen found that the new systems and policies better fit the information needs of the company We needed more flexibility, more power, and less cost. Our current systems have scored high in each of those areas. calculating machine power is now where it belongs not with the IT people, but in the hands of the people who need it. IS Group ReconfigurationOutsourcing the mainframe and mainframe applications to EDS led to a change in the configuration of the IS group as well. Contracts with employees from software houses were stopped, and many of the individuals working on the mainframe went with the mainframe systems to EDS while other staff shifted to other areas of the IS group, such as systems management. Pietersen was convinced that the competencies and capabilities of the IS group had to be expanded to align the use of IT with the evolving supply chain, rather than simply promoting IT solutions as answers to the companys information management problems. Pietersen mum that this change in approach for the IS group required not only a deeper knowledge of business processes and strategy, but also an understanding of how people used the information. Pietersen therefore transformed the IS department from units for application development, customer sup port, and operations (a functional structure) to teams solution, and customer-service areas-the process owners (a team-oriented business approach). (Refer to Figures 3 and 4 for the IS organization before and after 1993. The information management needs of the business areas were thus defined by people from both the business areas and IS. These account teams helped select standard application packages and, afterwards, adapt the business process to the software package or adapt the software package to the business process. These teams thus developed and implemented systems that gave the required support for the respective business processes and delivered information to enable a better control of the supply chain. Shrinking from 130 to 40 people, the IS group was now doing what they had been doing differently. Pietersen and Janssen believed that increasing overall access to information would support managements efforts to enhance the employees empowerment. Client/server systems also f ostered teamwork and horizontal decision making. They were fast, flexible, and permitted greater communication with customers and suppliers, which resulted in improved customer service. And they promoted the development of a process view (focusing on total processes rather than on discrete tasks). Furthermore, the new configuration of the IS group, with its more team-oriented business approach, also promoted a spirit of greater cooperation and communication.Pietersen commented, If we quiesce had the mainframe, all this would not be potential. Evaluating IS Performance In 1995, Pietersen and Janssen were still trying to determine how to measure the performance of the IS/IT department. They agreed that IS/IT needed to serve the business, and different service level Agreements were to be negotiated with the different functional areas (as shown in Figure 5) What is our business? Is it information technology? No, our business is brewing and selling premium beer of high quality.We chang ed our IT indemnity to make it clear that IT supports the business, but doesnt drive the business. We started to focus on having a beautiful bottom line rather than beautiful IT applications. IS performance then became based on the timely and successful completion of projects. The most important measure was the improvement of the business process for which a system or service was meant. In the future, Pietersen and Janssen would be trying to develop criteria to measure the impact of an IS project on improving overall business performance.INFORMATION ASSETS IN THE BUSINESS Executive Information Systems (EIS) By 1995, Heinekens operational supply chain system-from supplier to end customer-was in its final phase, and the company had begun to add the decision support element. Decision-support or decision maker information systems would make it possible for managers to express their information requirements directly. Pietersen hoped that their ease of use would encourage managers to an alyze past performance in greater depth and enable them to simulate the possible consequences of proposed actions more accurately.When it came to selecting the appropriate software, Pietersen had chosen EIS Express I call it the technical infrastructure the grassroots logical infrastructure of all these systems is in place, and now we come to enabling real improvement, not just the EDI links we have with our retailers, but also such things as installing executive information systems (EIS) to give our management team the control instruments they need to navigate us through the more turbulent business environments we will face in the coming years.The executive information systems gather their data from the data warehouses of the different business systems in all areas and can show this easily through different (graphical) viewpoints. One of Janssen and Pietersens goals for the use of executive information systems was to have unity in the data. Janssen explained Having unity in our da ta is crucial. Only a few years ago we discovered some departments were using different unit volumes than we were. And that just should not happen in any organization. Better Planning ToolsA key part of the IS/IT strategy was to develop an integrated set of systems to plan and control the overall supply chain, both in the short run (bottle-line scheduling and daily operations) and over a longer horizon (sales forecasts and long operations research). The aim was faster and more flexible control of supply chain activities. Jan Janssen elaborated What we are working toward is a coherent and consistent set of planning and scheduling tools which are more or less compatible and interconnectible so that you can build up or build down the basic data.Our goal is to be able to model business processes and to have the data, like sales forecasts, to support our decisions about capacity, bottling lines, and stocks. We want to be in a side where, if you have to make a decision, you can run simu lations based on actual data. The concept of supply chain management ultimately served as the driver for to optimize the supply chain activities as well as to ensure better information management. (Refer to Figure 6 for Heinekens information systems. )Janssen and Pietersen had put in place information systems to collect and integrate information on Heinekens on-premise customer activity. Information on each hotel, restaurant, and cafe/pub that Heineken Netherlands had contact with (as owner, financing agent, or product supplier) was included in these systems. In this way, Heineken Netherlands was able to provide the relevant sales force with an integrated view of their customers (large or small) as well as with information on competitors catering to the same establishments, beer sold, and contract terms. Janssen elaboratedWe are thinking about what the next stage of the rocket will be. We have defined the baseline and are looking at workflow, EDI and planning information systems-ho w should these planning systems interrelate? We are in the process of defining the next phase of the vision for Heineken as a business in the Netherlands and for the IS/IT fit to that. The current debate is just how far to go. This case is a condensed version of Heineken Netherlands B. V. A&B. It was prepared by explore Associate Kimberly A. Bechler under the supervision of Professors Donald A. Marchand and Thomas E.Vollmann, as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or unable handling of a business situation. The names of the Heineken managers involved have been disguised. It was developed within the research scope of Manufacturing 2000, a research and development project conducted with global manufacturing enterprises. The authors wish to acknowledge the generous assistance of Heineken management, especially IS manager Gert Bolderman. Copyright 1996 by IMD- Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland. Not to be used or reproduced without written permission directly from IMD.CASE STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Analyze Heineken Netherlands using the value chain and competitive forces models. Why did the company feel it needed to transform its supply chain? 2. Analyze all the elements of the new IT infrastructure that Heineken selected for its new business processes. Were Heinekens technology choices appropriate? Why or why not? 3. What management, organization, and technology issues had to be intercommunicate when Heineken Netherlands reengineering its supply chain? Hectolitre = 22 Imperial gallons = 26. 418 U. S. gallons Heineken 1994 Annual Report. 21000 Guilders (G) = approximately ? 368 = U. S. $575 (at December 31,
Saturday, May 25, 2019
We are first introduced to the strikingly beautiful Abigail Williams in Act I of one of Arthur Millers most acclaimed kit and boodle The Crucible. She is a superior figure in the run into who is both malicious and manipulative. She is astute and knows how to use power to her own advantage by all direction possible. She is a marvellous antagonist with vengeful desires and vehicle for the mass hysteria which becomes a key theme later in the play.Abigails effectiveness as a character is ap nourish from the opening scene when poor Betty Parris lies in bed overcome by a mysterious trance with both Tituba and noble-minded Parris as well as present in the more or lesswhat dull, unmellowed room. The setting set by Miller is typical of the furnishings of Puritans simple and functional with only a chest, a hold in and a small table. As Abigail Williams enters the room Miller describes her as being strikingly beautiful. This is a peculiar(prenominal)ly strong image as the room she has entered has nothing particular of interest yet Abigail is striking. This suggests that Abigail has a strong presence and foregrounds her role in the play.Throughout the first act, we learn more(prenominal) just about Abigails dominance and authority over other characters within the play. We collide with the power that Abigail has over Betty Parris where she commands for Betty to sit up now and stop, whilst shaking her. These bunco, dashing commands make Abigail appear to have authority. The way in which she orders Betty to stop is almost like she is more of a surrogate mother angrily shouting her child, which in this case is Betty. Although we know that she is Bettys cousin, some audiences may see Abigail as this mother figure involuntarily and subconsciously giving Abigail a more dominant role and higher status.Progressing through the opening act, we learn that Abigail possesses a shrewd insight, as she is presented with a sharp awareness, as being astute and quick minded. We also see that Abigail has the capacity for strategy, this can be seen when Abigail quickly points the finger to watch her own back at Tituba something she easily got away with as in much(prenominal) times being a black slave was probably one of the lowest status to stand at. In possessing these strengths, Abigail can be seen to be beyond other characters, and really does set her apart giving her an advantage over more other characters in the play.As a result of Abigails dominance in the play, she holds great power over other characters- however she abuses this power and can be seen as a typical bully. She can be seen as fearful, intimidating and persuasive. She presents images of fear such(prenominal) as when she talks about seeing her own parents heads smash on the pillow next to her possibly scare the younger, more vulnerable characters. She presents malicious and domineering behaviour throughout the act and as a result of this behaviour she can be seen as the vehicle cigare t the mass hysteria as she knows that her fellow characters will do as she says creating a snowball effect of hysteria. Her selfishness is another aspect to consider, this is a quality something many bullies posses. We can see this clearly when Abigail is threatening Betty later on she screams out Mama, Mama she says I a compass and again, which really emphasizes her self- centred personality.Throughout the act she then takes the opportunities to look after herself and uses situations to her advantage also , which can be seen in the case where she blames Tituba despite Abigail being the one encouraging the chanting in the first place to let off her own neck. She then uses her allegations against Tituba to her advantage obtaining somewhat recognition from those of a much higher status in the courts. Abigails bullying behaviour can be seen most clearly when she threatens Betty Parris after her hysterical outburst. She is harsh with her words and seems to be both commanding and imp erative in the way that she speaks.When she is threatening Betty, she uses dark and autocratic imagery such as her parents heads being smashed against a pillow, reddish work which could also mean murders and something terrible that could just blow over to the girls in the black of some terrible night. Her bullying behaviour can also be seen when she says I can make you wish a term often associated with bullies in other books and films alike. Minor sentences are used almost in a staccato which makes her dark oppressing words seem evening more threatening, going also in line with Millers stage directions for Abigail to shake Betty roughly.Another quality bullies seem to have is to be manipulative. When Miller introduces Abigail he makes a point in saying that she has an endless capacity for simulation. This means that Abigail is able to act, she is able to transform into various characters yet still be Abigail Williams. It is grave to note that Miller uses the word endlessly whe n he says this this means that Abigail wasnt at all limited by the number of times or the various acts that she could perform. By having this ability, Abigails character within the play can be seen as almost metamorphic able to change form as and when necessary. macrocosm able to change form and act, Abigail is able to be manipulative and throughout the act an eerie sense of manipulating by Abigail can be seen. She quickly identifies peoples flaws, weaknesses and prejudices to gain control over them. With this knowledge, she then becomes mercilessly manipulating and uses this to her advantage. Abigails talent for manipulating and changing forms can clearly be seen upon her encounter with John watch over. In a short space of time Abigail is presented to be softening and gentle to then be bitterly angry to then be in tears. Here we see Abigail playing the part, something she seems very comfortable in doing.An important thing to remember about the way in which Abigail acts is the i tem that Abigail seems quite dauntless in what she is doing, she appears to be fearless of the consequences some of her actions might have, nor does she seem to be very intimidated by other characters so much that she backs down. An example of this is Abigails fantasy of Proctors love and her vengeful desire to eliminate Elizabeth so that she may have Proctor to herself. She even drank a charm to kill Goody Proctor, this wouldve been only against Puritan beliefs. Her willingness to discard Puritans social restrictions sets her apart from other characters and suggests that nothing is impossible for Abigail, nothing is beyond her grasp, not even Gods word.Due to the mise en scene of the play a time of deeply religious Puritan surroundings in New England Massachusetts, Miller includes lots of religious connotations and often uses Biblical language. With such strong Biblical links, Abigail Williams character can be seen to be similar to that of Jezebel in the Bible. In Christian lore, a comparison to Jezebel suggested that a person was a pagan or an apostate masquerading as a servant of God. By manipulation and/or seduction she misled the saints of God into sins of idolatry and sexual immorality. In particular Jezebel has come to be associated with promiscuity and in modern usage the name of Jezebel is sometimes used as a synonym for sexually promiscuous and sometimes controlling women. The idea of Abigail being similar to Jezebel, links in as she is in fact manipulative and within the first act, we are told of Abigails map with the married John Proctor, years her senior.As manipulative and malicious Abigail is, one must ask whether she is completely bad? As we are told when we are introduced to Abigails character, she is an orphan she is also unmarried, which at the time would mean that she was low rung on the Puritan Salem social ladder, with only social outcasts and slaves like Tituba under her. This leaves Abigail in a vulnerable position. We must question whether declaring witchcraft was really a malicious act or whether it was a cry for caution and some power? Declaring witchcraft in such times would result in instant status and recognition which later could lead to power. Another cry attention that should be considered is the idea of Abigails fantasy for Proctors love.Being a young girl, perhaps this reflects on her age? As well as considering if Abigail is completely bad, one must try to understand why Abigail behaves like this. The idea of Abigail being vulnerable is possibly a reason for why she is so manipulative and dauntless. As we are introduced to Abigail we are made award that she is an orphan, Abigail later goes on to talk about seeing Indians smash her dear parents heads on the pillow. As she has seen the worst, it may mean that Abigail feels the need to be self sufficient and strong as she has grown up with weeny or no love and lonely typical of Puritans nature -and being a hard faced independent is in fact Abigails only option.As a conclusion, we learn in the opening scene of The Crucible that Abigail holds an authority as a character within the play who is presented by Arthur Miller to be a typical bully who presents threatening, selfish, intimidating and manipulative behaviour. We learn that Abigail has a capacity for strategy and an endless capacity for dissembling making Abigail quite an intriguing character, a character to certainly watch throughout the later acts, as we are left to ponder, what exactly will Abigail do next?
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Going lean is the talk of the season. Almost all the big organizations be adopting lean practices not only manufacturing exclusively management. In this write-up I am going to discuss how HR as an organizations function can help in lean transformation. A critically important issue in lean success, just now coming into clear view, is the relationship between the human resources (HR) function and lean transformation. It turns bring out that the HR function, even at its best, is often considered as only a passive supporter of lean transformation. At its worst, it is said to be a bar to progress.There are two facets to the relationship between lean and HR. First, it is self-evident that the HR functionjust like any other department in a companyneeds to apply lean practices and principles toward process improvement in its own work. Second, the HR function needs to actively support and levy lean transformation throughout the company. The HR function, by virtue of its interactions with virtually every part of a company, is actually in an suppositionl position to be a powerful ally in lean transformation, IF lean leaders make the effort to enlist its aid.Here we are discussing how HR makes a profound contribution to lean success with active support in several key areas. What is Lean (concept) Lean principles come from the Japanese manufacturing industry. The term was first coined by John Krafcik. From its inception Lean was considered as manufacturing tool but today lean has evolved from just a tool to a philosophy of success. The core idea of Lean philosophy is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste. Simply, lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources.A lean organization understands customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously increase it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value innovation process that has zero waste. To accomplish this, lean thinking changes the fo cus of management from optimizing separate technologies, assets, and vertical departments to optimizing the menstruum of products and services through entire value blows that flow horizontally across technologies, assets, and departments to customers.Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need slight human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less monetary values and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond to ever-changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Also, information management becomes much simpler and more accurate. Lean for production and servicesA usual misconception is that lean is suited only for manufacturing. Not true. Lean applies in every business and every process. It is not a tactic or a cost reducing program, but a counsel of thinki ng and acting for an entire organization. Businesses in all industries and services, including healthcare and governments, are using lean principles as the way they think and do. Many organizations choose not to use the word lean, but to label what they do as their own system, such as the Toyota Production remains or the Danaher Business System.Why? To drive home the point that lean is not a program or short term cost reduction program, but the way the company operates. The word transformation or lean transformation is often used to characterize a company moving from an erstwhile(a) way of thinking to lean thinking. It requires a complete transformation on how a company conducts business. This takes a long-term perspective and perseverance. The term lean was coined to make out Toyotas business during the late 1980s by a research team headed by Jim Womack.Lean Thinking Lean transformations think about troika fundamental business issues that should guide the transformation of the e ntire organization Purpose What customer problems will the enterprise solve to achieve its own purpose of thriving? Process How will the organization assess each major value stream to make sure each step is valuable, capable, available, adequate, flexible, and that all the steps are linked by flow, pull, and leveling?People How can the organization insure that every important process has someone responsible for continually evaluating that value stream in terms of business purpose and lean process? How can everyone touching the value stream be actively engaged in operating(a) it correctly and continually improving it? Just as a carpenter needs a vision of what to build in order to get the enough benefit of a hammer, Lean Thinkers need a vision before picking up lean tools, said Womack. Thinking deeply about purpose, process, multitude is the key to doing this.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Time never returns and its wise, judicious, useful utilization brings rich dividends to a person. For example, careful utilization of epoch on studies in young age rewards anyone with a good post afterwards and ensures a plentiful, Prosperous livelihood for the rest of life.Likewise, careful use meter in youth helps a man make a prestigious place for himself in society. It earns him name, fame as well as Prosperity. except the tragedy is that many another(prenominal) of us have absolutely no idea of the value of time in life.We perform our jobs in a haphazard way, miss appointments with ease and baffle late for any appointment, however important it may be. It is too hate for us to learn, much to our grief that time and tide wait for no man. ascribable respect for time rewards us with wealth as well as success.When a work is delayed, the time which could have been profitably used is wasted. Time muddled is lost forever. There is no dearth of people in this world who complain th at they have never had any luck and so have remained poor.But the reality, however, is that many cases of poverty are on account of the wasted opportunities and deferred tasks.Dont forget that quite often we have to pay a truly heavy price for delaying things. The person who prolongs taking insurance of his house usually regrets his folly, when the house is gutted by a sudden fire. Delay in the interposition of a disease may lead to its worsening and may, finally, even result in death.The student, who goes on postponing studies, never gets time to prepare for the examination and does very badly at the end. He remains under great mental strain and may even get confused in the examination hall at the time of writing his answers.A timely action in any direction, whatsoever, is a guarantee for success and perfection. This is why the wise often say A stitch in time saves nine.There are a number of other proverbs conveying almost the same meaning. Thus we say Make hay while the sun sh ines strike while the iron is hot time and tide wait for none and never put off till tomorrow, what you bear do today. But at the same time, we also have a few proverbs which contradict these proverbs.We say Haste makes waste more haste, less pep pill look before you leap and slow and steady wins the race. But all these contradictory pieces of advice say only to be judicious and thoughtful. None of them asks you to waste an opportunity.In our limited period of short life, we have lots of things to do and hence the urgent need of managing our time the right way and make the best use of apiece and every moment at our disposal.We shall be saved from regret, stress, tension and humiliation and will be able to make all-round progress, only if we understand properly how dangerous delay is and how important and precious time is
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Bel Air Chair Peter Shire has many interesting works of art. The artwork that stuck place to me was the Bel Air Chair. Its interesting physic really caught my eye. The colors and shapes were so bright and different it just jumped out at me. It was so unique and various(a) from any of his other artwork I had never seen anything like it before. With further research I discovered that this amazing work of art was created in 1982. This electric chair was one of the most important contributions to a design group called Memphis.The chair became a signature object for the Memphis Collection and was used on many intelligence covers and posters. Shire got a lot of his inspiration from Los Angeles while creating this piece of post modern art. To me, the main stir up of the chair is obviously the colors. The vibrancy and brightness are the first things that catch the eyes of admirers. He didnt stick to one color. He used a dark, maroon, red color for the back of the chair as well as a gre en, yellow color for the cylindrical arm which establishes a contrast. He used an orange for the sphere on the back part of the chair.My favorite color of the chair was the semi-pastel green on the bottom front of the chair. This color, along with the semi-pastel pink, makes it look classy and elegant. The materials used on this chair were wool and cotton. It brings the sensation of warmth and comfort that makes you want to sit and curl up on the chair. Its inviting with the look of its bigness and comfort that makes it more attractive. Being an art teachers daughter, im drawn to this type of colorful extravagant art. It brings a spice and jazzy look to art. This chair was made of many different geometrical shapes and materials.A sphere was used for the bottom back of the chair to add some diversity to the chair and make it Peter Shires own creation. A cylinder was used for the arm rest which is only on one berth of the chair which creates a distinct look while the other side of t he chair is half of a cylinder which helps to create a sense of uniqueness. A square was used as the seat of the artwork which exaggerates the look of it macrocosm a chair. The back of the chair is a different and difficult shape to explain. This shape makes you think and really admire the artwork.Trying to figure out what kind of germinal mind could come up with such an extraordinary work of art puzzles me. Peter Shires inspirations came from many different objects. The sphere was inspired by a rim ball which he had used for the bottom back of the chair. The best part about the chair is the part where you lay your back when you sit. He got his inspiration from a beach wave or even a shark fin. An interesting part of this work of art is that it was named after a five-star luxury hotel in Beverly Hills California. The rubric that is on the Bel Air Chair was taken from the hotel and placed on his piece.At first glance, the work of art is not perceived as wood. It looked like calen dered plastic glazed in bright colors. With a closer look it was clear that it was wood. This extravagant work of art looked difficult to carve yet so perfected. His use of the variety of colors was complimenting both to the objects and the other colors. His chair has been duplicated into a special limited edition which is shown at museums all around. His work of art would pee-pee not nearly gained the popularity it accomplished if it werent for the colors. The pop of the chair made it a hit.
The Effect of Temperature on the rove of the reception Between atomic account 20 Carbonate and 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid Josue Montoya IB Chemistry SL Mr. Pham Due date stamp 07 March 2013 Dates Experiment Was Conducted 27, 28, 29 February 2013 INTRODUCTION Research Question How does altering the temperature at which atomic subprogram 20 change and 1. 0 M hydrochloric sulphurous oppose, have-to doe with the post of response? Aim The purpose of the try break through is to shew how changing the temperature at which a reception takes define, either by lowering the temperature or making the temperature rise, affects the intend protrude at which the answer proceeds.To demonst put how changing the temperature at which a answer takes place affects the charge per unit of the reply, the response amongst atomic number 20 degree centigradeate and 1. 0 M hydrochloric ditulous allow be observed at 5 various temperature readings. The 5 varying temperatures are targ eted towards organism at 10? C, 20? C, 30? C, 40? C, and 50? C. It is highly improbable that each(prenominal)(prenominal) trial for each of the 5 different temperatures provide be the contain temperature that was targeted, so its just important that you end up having a temperature clean close to the targeted temperatures so that the pass judgment of replys that you do receive are as temper as possible.The swans of answer exit be obtained employ an apparatus that forget guide the coulomb dioxide gas be produced from the answer in the midst of the 1. 0 M hydrochloric sexually transmitted disease and the atomic number 20 change from a response bed bedroom into a flaskful containing pissing system. This essay will be doed by placing near 3. 0 grams of atomic number 20 carbonate chips into a flask containing 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric deadly at one of the targeted temperatures. This flask is called the answer sleeping room beca enforce it is the flask th at contains the actual occurring reception. The reaction surrounded by calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid pisss carbon dioxide as one of its products.When the carbon dioxide goes through the tube connected to the plug that seals the reaction chamber it presents the flask containing the weewee the peeing will be pushed up a different tube and will displaced into a 50 mL graduate piston chamber where you can touchstone how capacious it takes for the irrigate to be displaced up to a certain specialize on the calib regulated cylinder victimisation a contraceptive diaphragm watch. In this specialized sample you will tax how grand it takes for 15 mL of water system to be displaced by the carbon dioxide gas being produced from the actual reaction. BackgroundThe stray of a chemical reaction is inversely cereb tread to epoch. This means that the hankerer a reaction takes, the lower its pasture. Rate can either be metric by the accession of product parsimonio usness start outd by the beat taken to achieve that submersion or by the littleen of reactant meanness divided by the clock time taken to stir that concentration of reactant (An fundament to the Collision Theory in place of Reaction). The collision theory states that a chemical reaction is dependent on the collisions among reacting molecules (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in range of Reaction).But, for a reaction to occur, these molecules must collide in the correct orientation and they must collide with sufficient slide fastener to be able to overcome the activating energy needed for a reaction to take place (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in evaluate of Reaction). Factors that suck up an effect on the rate of a reaction include the concentration of reactants at the beginning of a reaction, the surface area of the reactants, pressure at which the reaction held, the use of a catalyst, and the temperature at which a reaction is held(An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction).Increasing the concentration of the reactants at the initiation of a reaction pluss the rate of the reaction because as the concentration additions, the oftenness of successful collisions between reacting particles developments as well (Ford 123). Therefore, lowering the concentration of the reactants decreases the rate of the reaction. Decreasing the particle size, or increasing the surface area of the reactants extends the rate of the reaction because by subdividing the reactants you allow for more than of the reactant to be candid and that will lead to high probability that the reactants will collide and react(Ford 124).Increasing the pressure will increase the rate of reaction, besides if the reactants are in a gaseous form because increasing the pressure will decrease the volume which will whence increase the concentration of the gases and lead to more successful collisions(Ford 124). The use of a catalyst will always inc rease the rate of a reaction because it provides a lower energizing energy for a reaction to undergo successfully (Ford 124-25). Temperature affects the rate of a reaction immensely.Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of all reactions because temperature is a measure of the mediocre kinetic energy of the particles and so the higher temperature represents an increase in their average kinetic energy (Ford 123). This also means that there will be a larger mensuration of particles exceeding the activation energy needed to collide successfully and react this translates into an increase in the rate of the reaction (Ford 123). Many reactions tend to double their reaction for every 10?C increase in their temperature (The Effect of Temperature on the Rates of Reaction). But, by lowering the temperature at which a reaction takes place you lower the rate of reaction just as oft as you increase the rate when you increase the temperature. Being able to control the temperature at which a reaction takes place is important because by being able to control the temperature you are also able to control the rate at which reactions happen, exactly most importantly you are able to control how fast you yield the product from the reaction.Pract trash canvassanswer keyFor example, in the Haber Process the product that is being produced is ammonia (The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia). By using a low temperature the equilibrium of the solution shifts to the right and yields more product, but using too much of a low temperature and the reaction will take an extraordinarily unyielding time to create ammonia as a product. To solve this fuss pressure and concentration of reactants are increased in revisal to be able to use a higher temperature so that the rate of the reaction is high, yet unruffled produces a good bill of ammonia (The Haber Process for theManufacture of Ammonia). In this investigate the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and ca lcium carbonate will be studied. The equation for the reaction between these twain substances is CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) The calcium carbonate reacts with the hydrochloric acid in order to produce calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water. In this experiment the rate of the production of the carbon dioxide will be indirectly measured through the timing of how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced.But, if we are measuring how long it takes for 15 mL of water to get displaced into the 50 mL calibrated cylinder we are also measuring how long it takes for 15 mL of carbon dioxide gas to displace the 15 mL water into the 50 mL have cylinder. Hypothesis If the temperature at which the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate increases, and and and so the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate will increase as well.According to the collision theory, if the temperature at which any rea ction is held is increased then the rate of that reaction will always increase (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles and so a higher temperature represents an increase in their average kinetic energy (Ford 123). This also means that there will be a larger amount of particles exceeding the activation energy needed to collide successfully and react this translates into an increase in the rate of the reaction (Ford 123).But, temperature and the rate of a reaction are directly proportional. If you increase the temperature of a reaction the rate will increase as well, but if you decrease the temperature the rate will decrease too. Variables Independent Variable The temperature at which the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate is held is the independent versatile because it is the only variable that is being altered during the experiment. In the experiment we chang e the temperature of the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid before the calcium carbonate is added for the reaction to proceed to 5 different temperatures.The 5 varying temperatures are to be nigh 10? C, 20? C, 30? C, 40? C, and 50? C. We are able to change the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid by emerging the vitamin D mL Erlenmeyer flaskful containing the 35 mL of hydrochloric acid into cold or hot water tubs. By changing the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid, the temperature at which the calcium carbonate and the hydrochloric acid react is able to be changed and we are able to observe how the temperature at which a reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate affects the rate of the reaction.Dependent Variable The rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate is the dependent variable because it is the variable that is being affected by the changes in the independent variable, which in this experiment is the temperat ure at which the reaction is held. By changing the temperature at which the reaction is held you will either increase or decrease the rate, depending on whether you increased or decreased the temperature at which the reaction is held. To measure the rate of the reaction between the 1. M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate, we will time how long it takes for the CO2 gas that is produced from the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate to displace 15 mL of water. To displace the water and measure the amount of time it takes to displace it we will use a water shift apparatus that will allow us to take the carbon dioxide gas produced to enter a water chamber and displace the water from that chamber into a 25 mL gradational cylinder, and we will use a stopwatch to time how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced.Controlled Variables 1) The concentration and amount of hydrochloric acid use should remain consistent through unwrap the entire experi ment. Therefore you should only use 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and only use 35 mL of it when conducting a reaction with calcium carbonate. To make sure your hydrochloric acid is of the resembling concentration every time you conduct a reaction, use the hydrochloric acid from the same source every time, and to make sure you use 35 mL for every trial use a 50 mL graduated cylinder to measure the amount of hydrochloric acid before you place it into the viosterol mL Erlenmeyer flask.It is important to use hydrochloric acid with the same concentration throughout the entire experiment so that the rate of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate isnt affected by anything other than the temperature. If hydrochloric acid is of a higher concentration than 1. 0 M, then the rate of the reaction will be faster than it should be, but if you use a hydrochloric acid with a concentration lower than 1. M then the rate of the reaction will be slower than it should be. 2) T he amount of water being displaced should be consistent throughout the entire experiment, therefore you should time only how long it takes to displace 15 mL of water. To measure that you are timing how long it takes to displace 15 mL of water, use a 25 mL graduated cylinder. To get the most hi-fi place as possible, suck up the stopwatch afterwards you place the calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing the 1. M hydrochloric acid at one of the 5 targeted temperatures and you have sealed the flask with the cork, then stop the stopwatch as soon as you see the water being displaced reach the 15 mL augury on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. 3) The amount of calcium carbonate used throughout the experiment should remain constant, so you should use 3. 0 grams every time you perform a reaction between the calcium carbonate and the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. To make sure that you are using approximately 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate in every experiment performed use a slowness dimension to measure out the calcium carbonate.It is important to use 3. 0 grams of the calcium carbonate in every experiment because if you use more than 3. 0 grams then more carbon dioxide gas will be produced and the rate will increase because water is being displaced faster because of the excess amount of calcium carbonate. But, if you use less than 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate then the rate will be slower than it should be. METHOD Materials 500 mL Erlenmeyer flaskful three hundred mL Erlenmeyer Flask 2 corks (plugs for that fit the 500 mL and 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flasks) Rubber Tubing 25 mL gradatory Cylinder 50 mL Graduated CylinderWeighing Balance Weighing Paper Stopwatch Calcium Carbonate Chips 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid 2 Glass Bowls Thermometer Heating Plate cd mL Beaker Water Ice Procedure situp Using the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask, 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flask, the rubber tubing, the 2 corks, and the 25 mL graduated cylinder make a water slip apparatus like the on e displayed in the draw below. pic 2. Fill up the 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flask up to the 250 mL with water before each trial of the experiment is conducted. The larger 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask is the reaction chamber in which the 1. M hydrochloric acid will be placed to react with the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate chips. The 25 mL graduated cylinder is where the water will be displaced into as the carbon dioxide gas enters the water chamber from the reaction chamber and displaced the water. Make sure to dispose of the water displaced into the 25 mL graduated cylinder after each trial. Experiment Reaction at 10? C pot up an ice bath by putting ice and water into the glass bowl and set it deviation so you can cool the hydrochloric acid later in the experiment. Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the i ce bath. make the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and count until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid drops to nearly 10? C. patch waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to drop, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and cheating it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate.Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are educate to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. whirl around the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the ice bath until it reaches 10? C. If your temperature goes below 10? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the ice bath and wait for the temperature to go up to 10? C. volume the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 10? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 5 00 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 10? C and cork it and start the timekeeper.Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. put down up the water displacement apparatus for the undermentioned trial. Repeat move 2-7 4 more quantify until you have through a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 10? C. Reaction at 20? C Set up an ice bath by putting ice and water into the glass bowl and set it aside so you can cool the hydrochloric acid later in the experiment.Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the ice bath. Stick the t hermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid drops to about 20? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to drop, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tarred the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the ice bath until it reaches 20? C. If your temperature goes below 20? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the ice bath and wait for the temperature to go up to 20? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 20? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 20?C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 10-15 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 20? C. Reaction at 30? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until turn on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 30? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 30? C. If your temperature goes above 30? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 30? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 30? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 30?C and cork it and start the timer. St op the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 17-23 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 30? C. Reaction at 40? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until boiling on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 40? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 40? C. If your temperature goes above 40? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 40? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 40? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 40?C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 25-31 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 40? C. Reaction at 50? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until boiling on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 50? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, u se the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 50? C. If your temperature goes above 50? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 50? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 50? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. M hydrochloric acid at 50? C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount o f time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 33-39 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 50? C. DATA COLLECTING AND PROCESSING Qualitative Data and Observations Observations of the Reaction between 1. Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate At variable Temperatures Temperatures At Which the Reaction Was Held What Occurred to the Reaction (Observations) (Varying Temperatures) 10? C The calcium carbonate did not cause much of a reaction in the chamber, it took a long time for the water to travel up the tubes and reach the 15 mL mark on the graduated cylinder. 20? C Reacted way quicker than the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 10? C. 30? C Reacted quicker than the 20? C, and the water was displaced a lot quicker than i n the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate at 20? C. 40?C The reaction was quicker than the reaction of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 30? C. The water was displaced fairly quickly. 50? C Most vigorous of all the reactions performed. The water started traveling up the tube almost instantaneously. The most vigorous reaction was the reaction that was held at 50? C.From this we can conclude that as the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased the rate of that reaction is increased as well. This leads us to understand that the relationship between the temperature of a reaction and the rate of the reaction are proportionally related. Raw Data How the Temperature at Which the Reaction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate is Held Affects the Time It Takes to Displace 15 mL of Water Targeted Temperatures Trial Temperature At Which the Reaction Was Held Time It Took For 15 mL of Water To Be (?C 0. 5) Displaced (seconds . 0. 01) 10 ? C 1 10. 7 94. 2 2 10. 1 94. 1 3 10. 2 94. 4 10. 5 94. 6 5 10. 5 94. 1 20 ? C 1 20. 4 52. 4 2 20. 4 52. 3 20. 4 52. 5 4 20. 3 52. 1 5 20. 2 52. 1 30 ? C 1 30. 2 22. 2 30. 1 22. 2 3 30. 2 22. 4 4 30. 3 22. 2 5 30. 4 22. 2 40 ?C 1 40. 3 18. 5 2 40. 6 18. 2 3 40. 5 18. 3 4 40. 6 18. 4 5 40. 18. 4 50 ? C 1 50. 6 13. 5 2 50. 5 13. 7 3 50. 0 13. 4 4 50. 1 13. 5 50. 2 13. 4 Processed Data middlings of the Temperatures Used in the Reaction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate and the Averages of the Time It Took For 15 mL of Water to Be Displaced As a Result of Those Temperatures Average Temperature (? C) Average Time it Took for 15 mL of Water to Get Displaced (seconds) 10. 4 94. 20. 3 52. 3 30. 2 22. 2 40. 4 18. 4 50. 3 13. This set of data was processed by taking each rate and temperature of one reaction at a specific targeted temperature and finding the averages by adding all the order up and dividing by the total number rates added and by doing the same with the different temperatures enter. Average Rates and Standard Deviation for the Reaction between 1. 0 Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate at Varying Temperatures Average Temperatures (? C) Average Rate (mL/seconds) Standard Deviation 10. 0. 16 0. 23 20. 3 0. 29 0. 26 30. 2 0. 68 0. 09 40. 4 0. 82 0. 11 50. 3 1. 1 0. 12 The average rates were build by dividing the amount of water displaced by the amount of time it took to displace it. In this experiment we measured how long it took to displace 15 mL of water, so we divided 15 mL by how ever many seconds it took to displace that amount of water at the various temperatures. The standard deviation was found using Microsoft Excel. From the information in this chart we are able to create a graph displaying how temperature affects the rate of the reaction between 1. M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Calculations % Uncertainty For the Rate of the Rea ction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate To calculate the % uncertainty for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate you have first divide the uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder used to hold the 15 mL of water that were displaced in the experiment and divide it by the number of mL being displaced. The uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder is 0. 5 mL. So in this experiment you would divide the 0. 5 by 15 and get 0. 03. You take this number and reproduce it by 100.Next, you will divide the uncertainty of the stopwatch, which in this experiment is 0. 01 seconds by the amount of time it takes to displace the 15 mL of water at a certain temperature. After you get the number from dividing the uncertainty by the amount of time it took to displace the 15 mL water you will multiply it by 100. You will add this number with the number you received from dividing the uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder and this wi ll constitute you % uncertainty for the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. GRAPHS pic CONCLUSIONThe purpose of this experiment was to evaluate how the changes in temperature affect the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. The relationship between temperature and the rate of the reaction was found by changing the temperature at which the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate was held. 5 different temperatures were used in the experiment. The rate of the reaction between the calcium carbonate and the hydrochloric acid was found by timing how long it took for 15 mL of water to get displaced by the carbon dioxide gas produced from the reaction.It was hypothesized that as the temperature at which the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate was increased then the rate of the reaction would increase as well. This was expected because the collision theory states that if the temperature at which any reaction is held is increased then the rate will certainly increase. The results suggest that the hypothesis is true, and that if the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased then the rate will be increased as well.The results also suggest that if you decrease the temperature at which a reaction is held, then the rate will decrease as well. As the temperature was decreased from room temperature to about 10? C the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate was averaged to be about 0. 16 mL of water displaced per second. But, as you increased the temperature the rate of the reaction increased. At 20 ? C, the rate was 0. 29 mL of water displaced per second, and at 30 ? C and 40 ? C the rates were 0. 68 and 0. 82 mL of water displaced per second.Finally the highest rate belonged to the reaction that was held at the highest temperature, which in the experiment was 50 ? C. The rate at 50 ? C was about 1. 11 mL of water displaced per second. From the results you are able to examine that the relationship between temperature and the rate of a reaction is proportional. This means that as the the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased then the rate at which the reaction proceeds will increase as well. slightly irregularities within the data come from the the rates that were recorded from the reactions held at 10 ?C and 20 ? C. These irregularities were a result from how long it took for the reaction to get going and produce carbon dioxide gas to displace the water. This could affect the way the data is interpreted because the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at these two temperatures could be recorded incorrectly and the rates might be higher than what was recorded. EVALUATING THE PROCEDURE The first weakness in the experiment would be that the seal of the cork to the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask that contained the reaction betwe en the 1. M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate was not a starchy seal. Throughout the experiment you could see bubble being formed on the edge of of where the cork met the Erlenmeyer Flask as a result of weak seal. Because of this weak seal, not all of the carbon dioxide gas that was produced was being used to displace some of the water. This weakness could have gave us rates that were lower than they should have been. To correct this a cork that created a tighter seal could have been used, or the cork could have been pushed down harder to create a tighter seal.The second weakness comes from not starting the stopwatch at the exact time in every trial. This could have been a result from having to work alone. Throughout the experiment I pressed the timer to start the time right after I plugged the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask with the cork. The problem with this is that some times I plugged the flask faster than other times. This error could have been firm by doing the experimen t in a group of 2, so that one person could start the time as soon as they see you place the cork on the flask, rather than having to do it yourself after you already put the cork on yourself.The third weakness could have came from not having the exact same temperature each time for each different targeted temperature being tested. None of the temperatures were exactly the same, this lead to inconsistent rate readings which were either to high or to low what should have been. This could have been corrected using a temperature try and getting the exact temperature every time rather than using a thermometer. IMPROVING THE INVESTIGATIONThe first breath for improvement is that instead of using the water displacement method to measure the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate a gas pressure sensor and the LoggerPro system could have been used to measure the rate of the production of the carbon dioxide and indirectly measure the rate of the entire reaction . By using the gas pressure sensor instead of the timer and the water displacement apparatus we could have recorded more precise and accurate rates rather than the rates that were recorded from using the water displacement apparatus.The second suggestion for improvement is to use a temperature probe rather than a thermometer to check the temperature at which the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate is held. This would allow for a more accurate reading of the temperature rather than using the thermometer and have a greater uncertainty for the temperature. A more accurate temperature reading leads to more accurate rates, that allow us to correctly interpret how the changes in temperature in truth affect the rate of the reaction of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate.The third suggestion for improvement would be to perform the experiment in a pair. By doing so there would be less errors in the preserve of how much time it takes to displace 15 mL of w ater. This way one person could start and stop the timer while the other person places the calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid at a specific temperature and corks it with the plug. Doing the experiment will lead to more accurate rate readings, that remain consistent throughout the entirety of the experiment. BIBLIOGRAPHY Zumdahl, Steven S. , and Susan A. Zumdahl. Chemistry.Boston Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Print. Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry Standard Level certain Specifically for the IB Diploma. Harlow, Essex Pearson Education, 2008. Print. An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction. An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia. The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. The Effect of Temperature on Rates of Reaction. The Effect of Temperature on Rates of React ion. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013.