Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Book Report Two Old Women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Book Report Two Old Women - Essay Example The author was looking for a very remote and intimidating environment to base the tale of two old women. The environment was very well selected and established. It is the part of the novel that depicted difficulty in the whole book. Apart from the difficult and intimidating environment, the story of survival and perseverance would be of no logic. The timing of the novel was very crucial and the author did an exceptional job in the timing of her book. It is the olden times of the novel that gave the tale logic in terms of few and scattered communities of people. It is also in the olden days that cannibals existed and held so much significant to people (pp. 98). In the novel cannibals were a feared lot. It also with the migrations made by characters in the novel made the timing of the tale exceptional. Apart from the setting of the novel, it is with great appreciation that I would recommend the novel to the modern society. In the novel, there was the depiction of laziness as a weakness. By strength, will and hard work that the two old women managed to survive during winter. This is a challenge to individuals who may use their weaknesses to avoid responsibility and seek attention. In my opinion, this fact created the most significant part of the novel. The choice of the vice by the author was exceptional. The author also focuses on society ties, betrayal and expectations. In the novel, the two old women were betrayed since they could not fulfill the tribe’s expectations of fitness (pp. 76). The authors mind was relating the struggles by the old population and the society reaction to their old age. At the conclusion of the novel the author expresses the apologetic feeling of the tribe when they found out the two women were still alive. This is a depiction of regret when we do not do the right thing. In the modern day society the novel still hold significance since we witness large numbers of old

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Causes And Problems Of Economic Scarcity Economics Essay

The Causes And Problems Of Economic Scarcity Economics Essay One of the economy systems is market system. In that system, private individuals and firms own most of the property resources which are land and capital. Individuals and firms are free to make economic decisions that benefit them. Consumers seek to pay for the good and service in the best value. Besides that, the objective of firms is to achieve the maximum profit. Then, workers seek to maximize their wages according to the working in particular job. Individuals, firms, and workers are free to make the economic choices. For example, consumers can decide the type and the amount of the goods that they want to buy. Firms can decide the type, production method and amount of the goods that they want to produce according to their ability. Worker can choose their jobs which they are qualified by themselves. Hence, the rich can satisfy their desires for a good or service because they are able to pay for it. On the other hand, the poor disable to pay for the goods and services they want so they cant maximize their satisfaction. As a result, the people who are able to pay for it can consume the good. Therefore, a market system cope with the economy scarcity by the ability of a person to pay for the goods and services he wants. Besides market system, command economy also can cope with economic scarcity. In this system, government is an economics decision maker. Government makes decision through a central economics plan. Most of the property resources are owned by the government. Individuals and firms cannot make economic decision freely. The government controls the price and quantity supplied of the goods. Government plans the output, production material and the technique used of each firms. It also plans the worker in each industry. Individuals are not given choice to choose their jobs. There is no competition in command economy. Consumers need not to compete to buy a good that is valuable because government distribute all the goods to the people in accordance with needs. Besides that, firms also need not to compete to produce a purchase that can maximize the profit. It is because government has planned the output of each firm. Government distributes goods to the people according to its judgment. For example, government gives more to those who contribute more and work harder. This may encourage people to work harder too. In this system, market prices are used to make the decision to allocate the resources that owned by government and queue the scarce resources. The government distributes the goods and services to the people and allocate the income of the people. Then, it gives the choice to them to spend the money. The objective of doing this is to handle the pattern of expenditure by setting an appropriate price. High price is set to discourage consumption while encourage consumption by setting low prices. Therefore, a command system copes with economic scarcity by the judgment of government to take care of social welfare. Question 3 Part A Supply means that producers are willing and able to produce the amount of good at each of a series of possible prices during a specific period. There are several reasons cause the supply of a product to increase. Cost of resources is one of the determinants of supply. It causes supply of the product to increase when the cost of resources rises and vice versa. The lower price of resources will reduce the cost of production. By the time, more profit will be made at the price. Hence, producers will increase the production to maximize the profit. For example, the decrease in the price of rubber will increase the supply of tires. Prices of other goods can affect the increase in supply of a product too. When a firm wants to produce a particular product, it can use their plant and method to produce alternatives goods. For example, laptop and desktop are the goods in joint supply. When the price of laptop rises, firms are more interested in producing laptop because it can earn more profit. At the same time, desktop becomes unattractive to the firms because it cannot maximize their profit. Another reason of increase in supply of a product is the number of sellers. When the number of sellers becomes larger, market supply will become greater. If firms leave an industry, the market supply will decrease and the supply curve will shift leftward. In conclusion, decrease in cost of production of a good, increase in the number of sellers and decrease in the price of a good in joint supply with the good that produced by the firm are the reasons of increase in supply of a product. Part B The government sets price floors on goods to avoid the price of them from falling below a certain level. However, economists say that the price floors and ceiling stifle the rationing function of prices and distort resource allocation. Economists say it because price floor is above the equilibrium price that stifle the rationing function of prices. Rationing function of prices is the ability of the competitive force to establish the consistent price of the good in selling and buying decision. If the market equilibrium price of a burger is RM2 and there is no shortage and surplus in the market, the consumers who are able and willing to pay RM2 for a burger will obtain it. However, the buyers who cannot or will not pay for it will fail to obtain it. On the other hand, sellers are able and willing to sell burger in RM2 will sell it and the sellers who are disable or not willing to sell a burger for RM2 will not sell it. The objective of setting the price floor is to protect the producers income. The setting of price floor can ensure the producers in not making loss in sales. Besides that, it also motivates the producers to increase in the production in goods. Hence, the supply of the goods will not keep decreasing and out of control. In resources allocation, consumers suppose to pay less in buying the product but the setting of price floor raise the price of the product. For example, the price of mask is falling to RM0.05 each because of the surplus. Then, government sets a price floor of RM0.10 for each mask. By the time, consumers need to buy it at the price of RM0.10 and they suppose to buy it at the price of RM0.50. It has distorted the resource allocation. Government sets price ceiling to prevent the price of good from rising above a certain level. The objectives of setting the price ceiling are to protect the benefit of consumers. The setting of price floor can ensure the consumers to be able to buy a particular product especially for those on low incomes. Besides that, it also encourages the consumers to buy the product. However, it is not fair to the suppliers because they suppose to earn more from sales. For example, the price of volleyball is RM100 because of the increase in demand. Then, government sets price ceiling of RM80 for each volleyball. Therefore, the suppliers sell the volleyball at the price of RM80 and they suppose to gain RM100 from each of the volleyball. This has distorted the resource allocation too. Question 5 Part A There are several differences between a decrease in demand and decrease in quantity demanded. Quantity demanded is the amount of a good that a buyer is able and willing to buy it at a certain price over a time period. Decrease in quantity demanded is caused by the rise in price of a product. For example, when the price of a mobile phone rises from RM800 to RM1000, the quantity demanded will fall from 1000 units to 500 units. However, decrease in demand is caused by the determinants of demand, rather than the price of the good. The determinants of good affect the decrease in demand such as tastes, number of buyers, income of household, the price of substitute and complement good and consumer expectation. For instance, tea and coffee are substitute goods. When the price of tea falls from RM2 to RM1, the demand of coffee will decrease. It is because the price of tea and the demand of coffee are positive relationship. Consumers tend to buy more tea when its price falls and so the demand of coffee will decrease. PBesides that, decrease in quantity demanded causes the demand curve to move upward. A P1 B P2 D0 0 Q2 Q1111 Q Figure 1 Figure 2 P Q D0 P0 0 Q1 Q0 D1Figure 1 shows a decrease in quantity demanded of apple. According to the figure 1, the price of apple falls from P1 to P2, there is a movement downward from point A to point B along the demand curve D0. Nevertheless, the decrease in demand causes the demand curve to shifts leftward. Figure 2 showing a decrease in demand of potatoes. Potato is a normal good. The decrease in income of consumers causes the decrease in demand of potatoes. According to the figure 2, when the income of consumers decreases, the demand of potatoes decreases from Q0 to Q1. Therefore, the demand curve shifts leftward from D0 to D1. Part B Percentage change in quantity demandedIncome elasticity of demand is used to measure the responsiveness of demand to a change in consumers income by buying more or less of a good. The coefficient of income elasticity of demand, Ed can calculate from this formula: Percentage change in income Ed = There are three degrees of income elasticity of demand which are positive, negative and exactly zero. If the income elasticity coefficient, Ed is greater than 1, that means it is elastic. The percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than percentage change in income. The goods can be normal goods or superior goods. For example, shoe is a normal good. When the income of consumer increases by 10%, the quantity demanded of shoes will increase by 20%. The income elasticity of demand of shoes is 2, > 0. If the income elasticity coefficient, Ed is less than 0, that means it is inelastic. The percentage change in quantity demanded is less than percentage change in income. The good is recognized as an inferior good. For instance, used clothing is an inferior good. If the income of consumer rises by 5%, then the quantity demanded of used clothing will decrease by 10%. Hence, the income elasticity of demand of used clothing is -2, < 0. If the income elasticity coefficient, Ed is equal to zero, meaning that the degree is exactly zero. The percentage change in income will not affect the percentage change in quantity demanded. Such goods are called necessities. For example, rice is a necessity of daily life. If consumers income decreases, the quantity demanded of rice will not increase and remain the same. Therefore, the income elasticity of demand is equal to zero. Question 6 Part A Diagram 3 80 50 Q0 Consumer surplus con Equilibrium price 0 DConsumer surplus is the benefit received by consumers in market. It is the difference between the maximum price that consumers are willing to pay and the actual price of the good. Consumer surplus appears when a consumer pay the equilibrium price that less than the price he would be willing to pay to obtain the product. P (RM) Q (unit) Diagram 3 shows the demand curve of bag. For example, Lily is willing to pay a maximum of RM80 to obtain a bag. The equilibrium price of the bag is RM50. So, Lily receives a consumer surplus of RM30 (RM80-RM50). .The relationship between consumer surplus and price is negative. Lower prices increase the consumer surplus but higher prices reduce it. Producer surplus is the benefit received by the producers in markets. It is the difference between the minimum acceptable price and the actual price that producers receive. Producer surplus appears when the minimum acceptable price of producers higher than the equilibrium price. Producer surplus and price are positively related. Lower prices decrease the producer surplus but higher prices increase it. P (RM) Diagram 4 Equilibrium price Q0 Producer surplus pro S 0 2000 Q (unit) Diagram 4 shows the supply curve of computer. For instance, Peter is the seller of computer in market. His minimum acceptable price is RM1500. As the equilibrium price of computer in market is RM2000, Peter received a producer surplus of RM500 (RM2000-RM500). Good XPart B 20 F B A C 15 Diagram 5 2 5 10 E 0 5 7 8 D Good Y Diagram 5 shows the production possibilities frontier. Assume that there are full employment, fixed resources, fixed technology and two goods are produced in the certain period. Point A, B, C and D mean that the resources of production are used efficiently. Point E means that the economy is wasting the resources without produce the greatest output possible. Point F cannot be achieved because the technology and resources are not able to achieve it. Scarcity is a situation when there are limited resources that cannot produce as many products as they want to produce and satisfy the unlimited wants of people. The concept is shown by diagram 4. The area inside the curve shows the resources are limited. If firms want to increase the production in good X from 15 units to 20 units, they must reduce the production of good X from 5 to 2 at the same time. It is because the resources are limited. Choice is an economic concept for people to choose a good in order to maximize their satisfaction because of the scarcity. According to the diagram 4, firms will decide to increase or decrease in production of good X or good Y that can maximize the profit. For example, if the increase in production in good X can raise their profit, firms will tend to do it. Opportunity cost occurs because of the choices that people made. It is the second best choice that has been scarifying in making choice. For example, firms have choices of producing 10 units good X and 7 units good Y or 15 units goods X and 5 units good Y. If firms make the first choice, the opportunity cost will be 2 units good Y. On the other hand, the opportunity cost will be 5 units good X if firms make the second choice.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Presidents cabinet :: Government Departments

Department of Treasury - Secretary John Snow 1. The purpose of the Dept. of Treasury is to help conditions for prosperity and stability in the United States, and to also help the rest of the world. The Department of Treasury manages federal finances. Treasury collects taxes, and collects debt from countries, as well as pay off the US debt. The currency, stamps, and coins are made by the Treasury. Not only do they enforce finance and tax laws, but they investigate and persecute tax evaders, forgers, and counterfeiters. Department of Labor - Secretary Elaine Chao The purpose of the Department of Labor is to maintain the welfare of job seekers, wage earners, and retirees in the United States. They improve working conditions, increasing profitable employment. The department of Labor protects retirement and health care benefits. They help employers find workers. Also, they measure other economic factors. Department of Transportation – Norman Y. Mineta The purpose of the Department of Transportation is to make sure that the citizens of the United States have a system of transportation that is efficient, safe, and fast. It needs to be easily accessible, and convenient. The situations that the Department of Transportation deals with are airplanes, highways, trains, and other forms of mass transportation of civilians. Department of Education – Margaret Spellings The purpose of the Department of Education is to make education equally accessible, and to help students become excellent students. This department deals with stopping discrimination, collecting data on American schools, and also funding financial aid for education. Department of Justice – Alberto Gonzales The purpose of the Department of Justice is to enforce laws. They punish people who break the laws of The United States. The department of Justice takes care of criminals, immigrants, and interprets the Constitution fairly and effectively. Department of Interior – Gale Norton The Department of Interior is the United States’ main conservation agency. Their purpose is to protect nature, and preserve US land marks. The department manages 504 million acres of land, 471 dams, and 348 reservoirs. They take care of U.S. energy needs, Native American lands and needs, and recreational and cultural opportunities. Department of Housing & Urban Development – Alphonso Jackson The Department of Housing and Urban Development’s purpose is to help more people become homeowners. They are to support the development of the community, and to make houses affordable, regardless of sex, race, creed, etc. The department deals with increasing homeownership, supporting community development, and increasing affordable housing, free of discrimination.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Theme of Feminism in The Women Who Walked into Doors

The Women Who Walked Into Doors The Feminist lens allows us to view a piece of literature from a different perspective. It applies the perspective of feminism to a certain piece of literature. There are a large number of feminism literary theories and all with a different angle of viewing the literature. Some theories look at the way words and symbols in the book are gendered. Other theories show the difference of writing between male and female authors.Many theories also focus on stereotypes and inequalities of women's ights and how they are symbolized in a book. Basically the feminist lens helps you analyze a book based on the philosophies and views of modern day feminism the any piece of literature. The Women Who Walked into Doors is a book about a woman named Paula and her struggle against her abusive husband that spent the 17 years of their marriage beating and abusing her. I am pretty sure that everyone who has read this book agrees that it is really a feminist novel with Roddy Doyle, the author, really trying to explore the life a woman's mind under abuse.The first signs of feminism come early in the book. Paula seems to be attracted to a guy named Charlo Spencer who is considered to be a â€Å"ride†, a term used to define an attracting looking person. We see the idea that women are into â€Å"bad boys† demonstrated by Paula when she falls for Charlo. She states how he looks sexy with his cigarette, a leather jacket, and blue denim Jeans. This was a typical description of a â€Å"bad boy' in the 90's. She also stated that he had a criminal record as if it were a good thing and rather attractive.As the novel progresses a lot of feminist theories are presented such as the audacity is young women in the 90's and even in current times. Paula is a risk taker and likes to explore around and not really afraid of consequences. This again touches on the feminist theory that women tend to be irrational decision makers in their late teenage hood. A p erfect example from the book is when Paula ignored her father's view on Charlo when he made it obvious he hated Charlo and said he is a criminal.However later in the novel as she grows older she realizes her father was right and only trying to protect her. This again supports the idea that during a stage of their life, women tend to make stupid decisions that they will regret later on in life. After Paula gets married to Charlo and the abuse and beatings start Roddy Doyle really starts to push some strong feminist theories through. One of the most important being the reliance that a woman has towards a man and really takes this idea to its peaks.This is portrayed by Paula throughout most of the novel, even though Charlo beats, rapes, and abuses her she still says she loves him and she can't leave him. For the sake of her own safety and well being she was not willing to let go of the man who she loved yet who abused her. This is supposed to show how women are dependent on men and bei ng beat by a man is better than not having one. Finally he most important theory being presented I believe is the imbalance of power between men and women and the breaking point ot a woman's tolerance towards abusive behavior.Throughout their marriage Paula has been powerless by not being able to make any choices or have any say in how things are done, because if she were to speak up she would likely get beaten by Charlo. This shows the imbalance in power and inequality in women's rights in the 90's when this book was written. Also even if Paula wanted to leave Charlo she did not have the power to on her own. However the idea presented is that women behave only like this is the problem is etween husband and wife, in the novel, when Charlo looks at Nicola, his oldest daughter, in a dirty way as if he wants to harm her is when Paula's breaking point is reached.She takes a frying pan and beats him down in the kitchen then kicks him out of the house for good. This brings us to the idea that when women's will not stand up for themselves but when their children are targeted they do the unthinkable to protect them. The fact that this book was written by a male author is really impressive for how he constructed the book from a females perspective and make it so effective in sending its messages and impacting on the reader.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Examine the Role of Rawiri in the Whale Rider Essay

Rawiri plays an important role in the novel which helped unfolding the events, ranging from minor to significant ones. He relates the events in the ‘Whale Rider’ as the role of the narrator, allowing the readers to form judgements and learn about things such as the Maori way of life and the characters through his eyes. He also give us his insights as he highlights themes and issues mentioned, like racial discrimination. Besides that, he is the one who sees the many signs of Kahu’s destiny as the leader of the tribe, piecing up a complete picture of her eventual rise as the leader. Additionally, he is her guardian, always protecting and looking out for her. With his carefree personality, he often provides comic relief especially in times of tension. As the narrator, Rawiri relates the events through his personal experience and conversations. This allows us to have a deeper understanding of what had happened that lead to the progress of the story. For example, we know what the relationship between Koro and Nanny is unusual yet endearing as they often quarrel in a chidish manner, like during the time Nanny rowed out to sea to get him back when he was out sulking about Kahu’s birth. We also know that Nanny’s headstrong personality is partially influenced by the fact that her ancestor, Muriwai, inspires her to champion the rights of women. All these enable us to know more about the characters and thus understand the reasons behind certain actions these characters make. He also highlights the theme of gender discrimination through Koro’s steadfast opposition to Kahu as he ‘virtually hurled’ her out of the meetinghouse, a place not for females, and told her to ‘go away’ many times, not even considering her as a potential leader even though she displays many outstanding qualities like leadership skills. During his time at Papua New Guinea, he also highlighted the issue of racial discrimination as he himself with the other natives are discriminated and marginalised. Rawiri is referred to as ‘home dogs and strays’ by Clara and that Jeff’s family did not care to even send Bernard to the hospital when they knocked him down because he is ‘only a native’. Through his insights, we get to know the harsh reality of class distinctions that is existent among different races, leading to ostracism. Besides that, Rawiri witnesses the signs foreshadowing Kahu’s future as the leader of the Maori tribe. Kahu is multi-talented, is the ‘leader of the culture group’ and ‘love to sing the Maori songs’ and even gave her speech at the end-of-year ceremony entirely in Maori. At such a young age, Kahu unusually displays many outstanding qualities that is required for a leader, and this suggest to the readers that she has what it takes and will eventually take up the leadership position as well. She ‘cried’ during the whale-beaching movie, ‘not even a lollipop would satisfy her’ and even ‘make a mewling sound at her throat’ when she witnessed the scene of whale-hunting on the beach. This shows that she is able to empathise and relate to the whales and there is a sense of communion between them, an ability that not even Koro possessed. He also saw her retrieving the stone from the deep waters, when all the other boys could not even do it. His narration of these events tells us that Kahu is unique and extraordinary, her astounding feats outshines the rest and thus hints to us that Kahu will do something great and lead her tribe. In addition, Rawiri is also Kahu’s guardian and protector as he is always seen to be trying his best to ensure her safety and well-being. During the whale-beaching movie, he felt ‘protective’ ‘like a father’ and felt that should look after her till the world ended’. Rawiri regards himself as a fatherly figure to her and feels the need to look after her, protecting her from all the rain and storm. Also, when Kahu went out to sea in an attempt to save the whales, ‘instantly I (he) ran through the waves’, ‘plunged into the sea’ and ‘yelled to her, a despairing cry’. Even though he was ‘frightened by the heavy seas’, he bravely ploughs on for her as he does not want to lose Kahu and felt a strong responsibility to get her back to safety, even if he ‘would just have to go down this whale’s throat and pull Kahu right out’. This shows the extent of his guardianship of Kahu as he takes pains to protect this mentally strong yet fragile girl of eight. Lastly, he also provides humour in different moments in the novel, especially in times of tension. For example, when Nanny felt indignant and unfair regarding the exclusion of women during school sessions, Rawiri managed to lighten the tense atmosphere through his comical phone conversation with Cheryl and bringing Kahu to the movies instead, with the girls ‘assessing whether I (he) had now become marrying material’. By inserting comic relief, there is a variation in the mood throughout the novel and thus the readers do not feel perpetually a sense of pressure and tension, and are able to feel relaxed. Also, the way Nanny wanted to look her best despite her failure as she wears a hat that ‘must have looked wonderful in the 1930s’ and ‘added a bit of this and a bit of that until it looked just like something out of her vegetable garden’ is a comic element which enables us to find her as an endearing character even though she is old-fashioned. By providing humour, it lightens the overall atmosphere and learn more about the characters. In conclusion, Rawiri narrates the events in the novel through his point of view and highlights certain themes and issues presented by the author. He is also he guardian of Kahu and takes care of her, assuming a fatherly position. Furthermore, he is the one who consistently sees the signs of Kahu’s fate to rise up as the next leader of the tribe. Lastly, he also provides comic relief which help to lighten the mood of the novel, especially during times of tension. He is definitely an important character which helps the story to progress efficiently.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on La Casa De Bernada Alba

La casa de destruccià ³n Cuando leyendo â€Å"La casa de Bernarda Alba,† de Federico Garcia Lorca, un lector est bombardeando con imagines, sà ­mbolos e ideas signà ­ficas. Hay tantos oportunidades para un lector a ver estes sà ­mbolos por los papeles, por los objectos y por los temas. Una de los temas ms importante y ms dominante y extendido es lo de la controla y la opresià ³n. Las personajes principales que muestran la controla y la opresià ³n son las de Adela y su madre, Bernarda. Bernarda y Adela son las personajes principales del drama. Sin ellas, el drama no podrà ­a tener el efecto que lo tiene. No podrà ­a tener los temas de opresià ³n y controla que son tan fuertes por todas partes del drama. No solamente las personajes y sus papeles demuestran el tema, pero los objectos que estn relacionados con los personajes principales, como el bastà ³n de Bernarda, el color de la casa, la puerta de la casa, y muchas ms cosas. Primero, Bernarda, la madre y el dictador de la casa, controla toda su familia en la casa porque ella est lamentando el muerte de su esposo, y no puede controla su tristeza. Entonces, ella sienta como tiene que tener controla sobre las vidas de sus hijas, para tener controla sobre algo de su vida. Adems, Bernarda lleva un bastà ³n, que representa la controla que tiene, como una reina, o ms como un dictador. Su controla y sus acciones no son las de una madre carinosa quien est lamentando su esposo. El bastà ³n representa la masculinidad de Bernarda porque un bastà ³n tiene las connotaciones que alude a Moses en la Biblia, o al papa de la iglesia catà ³lica, y los dos son lideres que son hombres. La diferencia entre Bernarda y Moses y el papa es que ella gobierna su familia en una manera muy estricta, y no hay amor ni carino. Los hombres religiosos, sin embargo, gobierna su gente con el amor de Dios, y con carino. La personaje que contrasta con Bernarda es su hija menor, Adela. Ella es la... Free Essays on La Casa De Bernada Alba Free Essays on La Casa De Bernada Alba La casa de destruccià ³n Cuando leyendo â€Å"La casa de Bernarda Alba,† de Federico Garcia Lorca, un lector est bombardeando con imagines, sà ­mbolos e ideas signà ­ficas. Hay tantos oportunidades para un lector a ver estes sà ­mbolos por los papeles, por los objectos y por los temas. Una de los temas ms importante y ms dominante y extendido es lo de la controla y la opresià ³n. Las personajes principales que muestran la controla y la opresià ³n son las de Adela y su madre, Bernarda. Bernarda y Adela son las personajes principales del drama. Sin ellas, el drama no podrà ­a tener el efecto que lo tiene. No podrà ­a tener los temas de opresià ³n y controla que son tan fuertes por todas partes del drama. No solamente las personajes y sus papeles demuestran el tema, pero los objectos que estn relacionados con los personajes principales, como el bastà ³n de Bernarda, el color de la casa, la puerta de la casa, y muchas ms cosas. Primero, Bernarda, la madre y el dictador de la casa, controla toda su familia en la casa porque ella est lamentando el muerte de su esposo, y no puede controla su tristeza. Entonces, ella sienta como tiene que tener controla sobre las vidas de sus hijas, para tener controla sobre algo de su vida. Adems, Bernarda lleva un bastà ³n, que representa la controla que tiene, como una reina, o ms como un dictador. Su controla y sus acciones no son las de una madre carinosa quien est lamentando su esposo. El bastà ³n representa la masculinidad de Bernarda porque un bastà ³n tiene las connotaciones que alude a Moses en la Biblia, o al papa de la iglesia catà ³lica, y los dos son lideres que son hombres. La diferencia entre Bernarda y Moses y el papa es que ella gobierna su familia en una manera muy estricta, y no hay amor ni carino. Los hombres religiosos, sin embargo, gobierna su gente con el amor de Dios, y con carino. La personaje que contrasta con Bernarda es su hija menor, Adela. Ella es la...

Monday, October 21, 2019

United States Declaration of Independence and Allowance Medical Allowance Essays

United States Declaration of Independence and Allowance Medical Allowance Essays United States Declaration of Independence and Allowance Medical Allowance Essay United States Declaration of Independence and Allowance Medical Allowance Essay E-67, 4th Crescent, Sainikpuri Secunderabad-500 094 Printed on : 10/03/2010 PAYSLIP DETAILS FOR THE MONTH OF : SEPTEMBER,2010 sudhansu sekhar mishra Employee ID SBU Designation Location Bank Current Leave Status CLs : 4. 00 BLs : 0. 00 Earnings Basic HRA Conveyance Education Allowance Special Allowance Medical Allowance Other Allowance Medical Reimbursement Meal Card Amount Gross Project DA Total Gross 3,500 1,400 800 0 1,300 0 0 0 0 7,000 0 7,000 Total Deduction Net Amount Arrear Gross Amount Total Amount Allowance Narration Deduction Narration Loan Narration Cumulative TDS Medical amount Rs. . 00/- is included in gross as allowance. , 0 623 6,378 0 6,378 PF ESI Professional Tax Loan Amount TDS Other Deductions Meal Card Amount Project DA SLs : 4. 00 Els : 7. 00 LOP Days : 0 MLs : 0. 00 Worked Days : 30 Deductions 420 123 80 0 0 0 0 0 112154 Radio Frequency Engineering S Level4 Hyderabad Axis Bank Ltd Date Of Join Account Number PF Number ESI Number Meal Card Account No: Project Nam e 14 Apr,2010 -NAAP/HY/35820/10250 N. A. Note: For more details please login to your account at specified URL http:// hrms. atspl. com Requesting to submit your tax declarations by login to ERP applicaiton, failing to submit the declaration will deduct TDS from salary accordiing to the tax rules In case of change of address/telephone number you may access your personal login and effect the change Aster Private Limited Page 1 of 1

Sunday, October 20, 2019

A Timeline of the Russian Revolution From 1914 to 1916

A Timeline of the Russian Revolution From 1914 to 1916 In 1914, the First World War erupted across Europe. At one point, in the early days of this process, the Russian Tsar was faced with a decision: mobilize the army and make war almost inevitable, or stand down and lose massive face. He was told by some advisors that to turn away and not fight would undermine and destroy his throne, and by others that to fight would destroy him as the Russian army failed. He seemed to have few correct choices, and he went into war. Both advisors might have been right. His empire would last until 1917 as a result. 1914 June - July: General Strikes in St. Petersburg. July 19th: Germany declares war on Russia, causing a brief sense of patriotic union amongst the Russian nation and a downturn in striking. July 30th: The All Russian Zemstvo Union for the Relief of Sick and Wounded Soldiers is created with Lvov as president. August - November: Russia suffers heavy defeats and a large shortage of supplies, including food and munitions. August 18th: St. Petersburg is renamed Petrograd as Germanic names are changed to sound more Russia, and hence more patriotic. November 5th: Bolshevik members of the Duma are arrested; they are later tried and exiled to Siberia. 1915 February 19: Great Britain and France accept Russias claims to Istanbul and other Turkish lands. June 5th: Strikers shot at in Kostrom; casualties. July 9th: The Great Retreat begins, as Russian forces pull back into Russia. August 9th: The Dumas bourgeois parties form the Progressive bloc to push for better government and reform; includes the Kadets, Octobrist groups and Nationalists. Auguest 10th: Strikers shot at in Ivnovo-Voznesà ©nsk; casualties. August 17-19th: Strikers in Petrograd protest at the deaths in Ivnovo-Voznesà ©nsk. August 23rd: Reacting to war failures and a hostile Duma, the Tsar takes over as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, prorogues the Duma and moves to military headquarters at Mogilev. Central government begins to seize up. By associating the army, and its failures, with him personally, and by moving away from the centre of government, he dooms himself. He absolutely has to win, but doesnt. 1917 January - December: Despite successes in the Brusilov offensive, the Russian war effort is still characterised by shortages, poor command, death and desertion. Away from the front, the conflict causes starvation, inflation and a torrent of refugees. Both soldiers and civilians blame the incompetence of the Tsar and his government. February 6: Duma reconvened. February 29th: After a month of strikes at the Putilov Factory, the government conscripts the workers and takes charge of production. Protest strikes follow. June 20: Duma prorogued. October: Troops from 181st Regiment help striking Russkii Renault workers fight against the Police. November 1st: Miliukov gives his Is this stupidity or treason? speech in reconvened Duma. December 17/18th: Rasputin is killed by Prince Yusupov; he has been causing chaos in the government and blackened the name of the royal family. December 30th: The Tsar is warned that his army wont support him against a revolution.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Difference in Authority Status Within the Family Essay

The Difference in Authority Status Within the Family - Essay Example My grandparents, we called them â€Å"mama† and â€Å"papa† respectively. We respected them because of their wisdom and feared them because of their ages. Our own parents made sure that the value of respect for the elders, especially the heads of the family, was instilled into our minds at an early age. This meant that even if we could reason out and discuss with our parents when something was not going our way, we were not given the same liberties by our parents when our grandparents were the ones in charge of us. We had to follow their orders without question or pause. The area where we grew up was unique because we had both the comforts of the city and the quiet existence of a farm life where we lived. The town proper and the malls were easily accessible to us while the area where we lived still housed goats and cows, a backyard industry of the residents of our area. In a way, I grew up in what others might consider being strange surroundings but was perfectly normal for me. Our family lived closer to the city proper while the other members of our family lived no further than 15 minutes away from us by car ride. So we were constantly having family gatherings and the kids grew up as playmates and best friends. I guess that is what makes my family unique. Even if we have few friends outside of our family circle, we never feel like we need more because everyone in our family is a friend to one another. We stick up for each other in much the same way that our parents and grandparents do when the need arises. One of my favorite memories from my childhood was when I was little and just about to start school. There were about 3 of us who were close in age who was also about to start school and that particular summer was the season that the older cousins got to teach us about how to survive in school. Somehow, I did not feel afraid about starting school because I knew that my siblings and cousins would also be in the same school. So I did not have to f ear to be alone, friendless, or bullied. I was right. When school started, we looked like a mafia family as the older relatives made sure that the younger ones made it to school on time, got into the right classes, and had someone to hang out with during breaks. Nobody dared mess with us. Our family took up a whole table to ourselves during lunch break and we always did what our parents told us to do, avoid trouble in school by sticking together. The only time we were separated from each other was when we finally had to report to class. When school was over, we would meet up at the front gate of the school and head on a home by school bus, still all together. Those were some of the most fun times I had as a child. I enjoyed going to school because it was a way that I could always hang out with my cousins and vice versa. We lived for school days and the weekends. Our parents found this puzzling at first but then came to realize that we were truly each other's best friend so our desir e to constantly be together was understandable and encouraged. After all, our parents believed that having each other as best friends meant that we would be free from trouble anywhere we went. It was because our cousins were inseparable that it became harder and harder for us to shop for holiday gifts for one another. Somehow we already knew who got what for whom and yet we still managed to act surprised when we would open our grits on Christmas Day.

Friday, October 18, 2019

To What Extent Does the Principle of Good Faith Play in English Contra Research Paper

To What Extent Does the Principle of Good Faith Play in English Contract Law, and French Contract Law - Research Paper Example In this context, Collins (1994, 230) stated that â€Å"the traditional solution for international transactions invokes the choice of law rules of private international law; under these rules, now codified by the Rome Convention, the parties to a contract are free to select the governing law, and in the absence of an express choice, the default rule applies the law which is most closely connected to the transaction†. In other words, the law applicable in a specific contract is decided primarily by the parties of this contract and only in cases that no special provision exists, then this issue is resolved directly by the relevant legal provisions referring to jurisdiction in cases of international transactions. The examination of the validity and the content of a contract has been traditionally an issue of primary importance for countries of civil law. For common law countries, the above issues are also extensively examined by the courts. In this context, the study of Beatson et al., (1997, 14) showed that â€Å"once the contract passes the test of initial validity, the control of its terms on the ground of unfairness becomes problematical since it is in direct conflict with the notion of freedom of contract; nevertheless, the law has for centuries possessed tools that could be utilized in order to exercise such control, notably the doctrine of public policy and the equitable rules against penalty and forfeiture; the doctrine of good faith provides another important tool for the control of contractual terms and their application; the doctrine has long been recognized by continental law; recently it has been gradually absorbed by a number of common law jurisdictions†. In accordance with the above researcher, the doctrine of ‘good faith’ is not broadly used in common law countries but only in cases where its application is inevitable taking into account the circumstances of a specific country and the behaviour of the parties involved. As pointed out by Summers (1968, 198) ‘Without a principle of good faith, a judge might, in particular cases, be unable to do justice at all, or he might be able to do it only at the cost of fictionalizing existing legal concepts and rules, thereby snarling up the law for future cases; in begetting snarl, fiction may introduce inequity, unclarity or unpredictability; in addition, fiction can divert analytical focus or even cast aspersions on an innocent party’.     

Book Reflection--NOT A BOOK REVIEW Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Book Reflection--NOT A BOOK REVIEW - Assignment Example The consequences of analysis exposed that commitment felony type, to a much less extent, institutional delinquency behavior considered heavily in decisions to raise adult portion of mixed sentence. Causes of Reoffending There is mounting recognition that institutional transgression may be an eminent cause of reoffending following the release institutionalization. It is unlucky that misbehavior when institutionalized has particularly been taken away from a comprehension of post release recidivism consequences. There is some pragmatic experience research on adult subject or juvenile delinquents. Procedures of delinquent behavior pre-incarceration, such as past delinquent and arrests adjudications that have had staples in reoffending research linking the juvenile delinquents. The absence of research on institutional misbehavior to recidivism is therefore astonishing making sure that delinquency behavior is a prime indicator of steadiness in misbehavior and many other antisocial performa nces (Trulson and Marquart, 30-60). Research Studies Even though the research is limited, some inquiry over affiliation of misbehavior to the post release recidivism for the juvenile delinquents is eminent for many reasons. First of all, the studies have shown that time institutionalization is important for several juvenile delinquents which give them the time to persist insulting on ‘inside’. For some time, at a grave pace and relatively common practice of juveniles show the persistence in criminal and other disruptive behaviors. In spite of institutionalization, there is tiny reason to think that these offenders will finish upsetting in instant period succeeding the instant period after getting done with their institutionalization (Trulson and Marquart, 70-72). Second, the institutional indicators of misbehavior are frequently the easiest recorded performances shown by aberrant offenders at the release point from the institutionalization. The delinquent history first measures and then other pre-incarceration variables regularly combined with recidivism. For instance, there are some years taken away from misbehavior when institutionalized and even further taken from the delinquent’s issue from incarceration. Existing behavior is closely linked with nearby past, the additional current behavioral systems of misbehavior may then assist to spread the comprehension of post release recidivism determinants. In fact, a rising body of literature has shown that primitive life circumstances are eminent part of elucidating the current behavior (Trulson and Marquart, 75-80). The final and the third, the connection or association among recidivism and misconduct has immense empirical implications for those people accountable for releasing the juvenile delinquents, mostly for release of most grave, chronic, or violent state leading up to juvenile offenders. The youngsters who come up to the state incarceration are most traumatic offenders in a juvenile ju stice system. Wholly, these are the offenders who still live on the growth side of total crime-age curve. These are the ones who are mostly on left hand side of offenders. When these

Individual marketing plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Individual marketing plan - Essay Example gement, this airline was subjected to massive financial losses during the period of 2010, As a result of minimization in its passenger count and increase in the flight charges (Guardian News and Media Limited, 2014). The potentiality of this airline was also affected by the economic turmoil during the period of 2009 that turned out as a disastrous chain of events against the premium flight service suit that this brand has developed over its functional years (IG, 2014). Taking these aspects into consideration, the discussion henceforth will focus towards creating a marketing plan for boosting up the business process of British Airways in the near future. The detailed elaborations of such aspects have been provided in the later portion of the discussions. The success rate of the marketing plan associated with British Airways will specifically rely upon the present situation of the UK market. As per the current records, the economic conditions prevailing within the UK has stabilized to a major extent after being subjected to the 2009 economic recession. The stabilization factor also encompasses the growth of tourism and other business sectors that has the potential of laying intensive positive impacts towards the growth of this leading airline brand. Previous records in this respect points toward the excessive travel rates of this brand, within low-income economies, that resulted in its decline (IBISWorld, 2014). Thus, the primary marketing strategy that is worth suggesting concentrates on the development of cost effective travel packages that will help the brand in regaining its hold over the competitive flight travel market. In addition, the growing pace of the small and medium scale business processes has also supported the need fo r increasing flight travels, creating a potential market space for growth (BA Media Ltd., 2013). However, the period after the 2009 recession, has also addressed the introduction of multiple new players within the market that has

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Caring in a technological world Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Caring in a technological world - Assignment Example Accurate documentation and integration of medical treatments and confidentiality is a pre requisite for the nursing staff as it endeavors to promote effective communication. Informatics plays a major role in communication in health care today. Use of cell phones and internet as tools for communication between physicians and patients is useful. It makes the patients to make informed decisions and focus on questions that they seek to ask their physicians because they provide written texts. They are also efficient because they provide a mode of communication though both parties may not be present at the same time (Ball, 2000). Research in the last decade showed that nearly 100,000 people die annually in the U.S.A due to medical errors (Ball, 2000). The introduction of medical informatics has led to the steep decline of these numbers. The technology can be used in diagnoses and treatments of patients. The invention of the COSTAR (Computer Stored Ambulatory Record) shows improvement in cases of misdiagnosis as this application software has an electronic patient that reminds clinicians and physicians about the guidelines of medical practice (Ball, 2000). There are also computerized programs that assist the physicians on the line of proper antibiotics to be prescribed. Processing prescriptions through this system ensure that the possibility of errors is reduced by over 45% (Ball, 2000). Managing knowledge involves proper dissemination of intrinsic and valued information after its acquisition. This information can be patient specific or evidence based. Examples of such information include electronic medical records and administrative (Ball, 2000). The ability to put into use the knowledge derived from informatics is the determinant of success of these systems. Health care information should be managed to promote confidentiality and the integrity of such data. These data should only be accessible to the appropriate individuals.

Economy of Venezuela Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Economy of Venezuela - Essay Example Venezuela is situated in the Northern Hemisphere, to the North of the South American plate, very close to the Equator. It shares borders with Colombia to the West, Brazil to the South, Guyana to the East and the Caribbean Sea to the North. Venezuela has 2,800 km of coast line and a number of islands can be observed off its coast: Barbados, Aruba, Curaà §ao, Bonaire, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Leeward Antilles. Venezuela shows a great diversity of landscapes: the Andes stretch towards the northwest of the country, where its highest peak Pico Bolà ­var (4,979 m) is located; the middle part of the country, which stretches from the Orinoco river to Colombia, is flat; and to the south, the Guiana Highlands are located in the fringes of the Amazon Basin. It is in this latter area where the highest waterfall in the world, the Angel Falls, is situated. The USA, Mexico, Colombia and Brazil are the main trade partners of Venezuela. The economy of the country is dominated by the petroleum sector, which accounts for approximately one third of the gross domestic product (GDP). The oil trade, controlled by the state-owned company Petrà ³leos de Venezuela (PDVSA), represents more than a half of the government revenues and 80% of the country’s exports. Other major exports are aluminum, steel and agricultural produce. Within the agricultural sector, which the country is highly dependent on, the main products are coffee and cocoa. The growth in the production of these two crops is dictated by the export market. While Venezuela had been world leading in terms of coffee production, the petroleum market of the 1960s and 1970s converted the country into the richest of South America and the coffee trade was relegated to a secondary position.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Caring in a technological world Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Caring in a technological world - Assignment Example Accurate documentation and integration of medical treatments and confidentiality is a pre requisite for the nursing staff as it endeavors to promote effective communication. Informatics plays a major role in communication in health care today. Use of cell phones and internet as tools for communication between physicians and patients is useful. It makes the patients to make informed decisions and focus on questions that they seek to ask their physicians because they provide written texts. They are also efficient because they provide a mode of communication though both parties may not be present at the same time (Ball, 2000). Research in the last decade showed that nearly 100,000 people die annually in the U.S.A due to medical errors (Ball, 2000). The introduction of medical informatics has led to the steep decline of these numbers. The technology can be used in diagnoses and treatments of patients. The invention of the COSTAR (Computer Stored Ambulatory Record) shows improvement in cases of misdiagnosis as this application software has an electronic patient that reminds clinicians and physicians about the guidelines of medical practice (Ball, 2000). There are also computerized programs that assist the physicians on the line of proper antibiotics to be prescribed. Processing prescriptions through this system ensure that the possibility of errors is reduced by over 45% (Ball, 2000). Managing knowledge involves proper dissemination of intrinsic and valued information after its acquisition. This information can be patient specific or evidence based. Examples of such information include electronic medical records and administrative (Ball, 2000). The ability to put into use the knowledge derived from informatics is the determinant of success of these systems. Health care information should be managed to promote confidentiality and the integrity of such data. These data should only be accessible to the appropriate individuals.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Causal story paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Causal story paper - Essay Example This is indeed true for many Latin American nations that have a deficit of foreign capital and are under increasing pressure of going for market driven reforms. Irrespective of the governmental constraints and the increasing opposition of the private sector, a favourable interaction of many variables like the labour backed parties at home and the ties of the local trade unions to the foreign labour and human rights groups has pushed the state governments to opt for pro labour reforms. It is primarily owing to the dependent variable that is the labour backed local parties and the independent variable that are the foreign based labour and human rights groups that the trade unions in Latin America have been able to wrest out favourable reforms. The deregulation of economies and the immense pressure for free market reforms has proved to be very favourable for the trade unions in the Latin American nations that have a history of labour mobilization and organization (Murillo & Schrank 974) . ... Though the labour backed parties in Latin America have been trying hard to break in into new constituencies, yet they could not afford to ignore the traditional support of the independent variables like the organized labour that happen to be a ready source of support and vote. Thereby the local labour backed parties do make it a point to press the governments to opt for pro labour union reforms, because if they fail to do so, they fear losing the support of the organized labour in their constituencies that is historically organized and is capable of shifting alliances if the need be. Argentina happens to be a typical example of a Latin American nation where the governments irrespective of being pro liberalization had to pass pro labour union reforms under pressure from the local labour backed parties (Murillo & Schrank 988). In contrast the Latin American nations which have a tradition of labour repression, the pro labour reforms owe their origins to a different set of variables. The se economies with the enhanced liberalization have become increasingly export dependent and it is the markets like the US where the goods produced by these nations find the customers. Being cost sensitive the governments in these nations are traditionally averse to labour reforms. However, the dependent variables like the labour unions in these nations have wrested reforms by aligning with a different independent variable that are the labour and human rights groups based abroad. These foreign based labour and human rights groups exert a pressure on their governments to push the rogue nations to opt for labour reforms in lieu of getting access to the US

Monday, October 14, 2019

Music, Culture and Value of Music in a Digital Future

Music, Culture and Value of Music in a Digital Future The uses of Music, Culture and the value of ‘free’ Music In a Digital future â€Å"We’ve lost a whole generation of kids, who grew up downloading free music from the web and cannot fathom paying for it† Abstract The past ten years have witnessed an enormous growth of musicology within the music and entertainment industry with questions concerning musical meaning and the extent to which it’s informed by cultural experience and socially derived knowledge. Groundbreaking developments are increasingly encouraging the demand for new products and platforms from consumer markets that have grown up downloading music knowing no better than to find their entertainment through the internet with the illusion that it is free. This dissertation looks at the early forms and purposes of music up to present day, factors threatening the music industry and what has affected it over recent years. The increased use of the internet, cheap software equipment and other technological art forms, have changed the way we sell, listen to and buy new music. I want to investigate what effects will this have on the industry in the future and what does this mean for artists and the way music is created and valued. Introduction Introduction will contextualise the central theme and notion of the work and describe my motivation and intensions. I will focus the introduction on the chapters individually. ‘The industry has been hanging off the edge for some time’ (McQuinvey, J. Date. P.). Chapter 1 – Talk about the development of technological devices related to new formats, and the main purposes of music up until today. Chapter 2 – Talk about the technological developments which have an effect on the way we buy and listen to music. New devices and gadgets are demanding newer ways to attain music and how we consume new music. Chapter 3 – Talk a little about the different types of people using and making music, how this is affecting record labels and what will happen in the future. As the development and discovery of technology grows and grows from early dates to present day, enabling more and more possiblilities†¦. Cultures and social activities are affected by radical technological change†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ‘One of the primary proponents of this categorization was William. F. Ogburn. He argued that in most cases it is the sequence of technology that causes social change’ Over the past however many years, digital downloads have been fought against buy, major labels, causing decades of copyright and pirate copying of music films and entertainment mediums. 2005 onwards†¦ Today in 2008 the subject of digital downloading and the internet is being redefined and recognised by the major record labels hoping to create a future with easy access to new music quickly and cheaply. Starting new web sites for downloads etc. People want faster choices and ways to attain their entertainment. The fast changing cultures within society Growth of music technology Internet sites- Amazon competing with major companies to sell a wider range of products as more and more people are buying online instead of using high street shops and other retailers. Modes and categories inherited from the past no longer seem to fit today’s reality, experienced by a new generation. Chapter 1 – (Progression of early forms of music, formats and purposes) For centuries music has been the biggest form of entertainment within households, pubs, clubs and events ever since the recording of sound, but since the early days of music the purposes and the means to consume music has grown considerably up to the 20th century forcing formats, technology and the music industry to change with time. This chapter will outline the progression of technology associated with music and its means of use in relation to new entertainment. When ‘Bartolomeo Cristofori’ became the inventor of the piano, identified as a stringed keyboard instrument with mechanically operated rebounding hammers, Cristofori’s invention became a success and around 1922, a survey was carried out which shows that the piano was the most popular instrument used in over 25% of the average household. Along with many other musical instruments dated before and after the piano, instruments were used for enjoyment and entertainment and at times for families and friends who would gather together to play and sing songs on special occasions. When the very first phonograph was introduced by Thomas Edison around 1878 and the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company was established. The phonograph would be treated in the same way as a piano or organ as families would again sit around and listen to records or family stories within the home but Edison realised the opportunities he had created with his invention. Edison’s invention enabled the possibilities of using the phonograph to perhaps dictate a letter, dictate books for the blind, make family recordings of their voices, music boxes and toys, clocks that announce the time, and a connection with the telephone company to record conversations. In 1857 Frenchman, Leon Scott de Martinville was the first to have invented his documented phonoautograph machine which was able to record sound waves but only created a visual analogue of the waves, until around 20 years later when Thomas Edison allowed two innovators to re-develop the later phonograph which became the gramophone. The gramophone used disk shaped materials to record onto which produced better recording quality and a longer playback time. American inventor Emile Berliner then created a process which allowed the sound tracing to be etched side-to-side in a spiral onto a zinc disk, this master would then be electroplated to create a negative which would then be used to stamp duplicate copies onto vulcanized rubber (and later shellac), a process which would change the means of music forever, a process now known as the mass reproduction of musical entertainment. The process to record, duplicate and play back music opened endless forms of entertainment and the industry were set to take the world by storm, selling records and making profits to consumers. The gramophone quickly outsold and overtook the phonograph and by the end of World War 1 the disc had become the dominant commercial recording format. A technological development which has had a major impact on music in this century is sound recording. Over the past seventy years the concert audience has been transformed from musical amateurs to a large number of potential buyers. The birth of sound recording started as a mechanical process, and with the exception of the Telegraphone in 1899 this process remained until the 1920s when a group of groundbreaking inventions in the field of electronics revolutionized sound recording and the young recording industry. Sound transducers were introduced such as microphones and loudspeakers and a few various electronic devices were made for the purpose of amplification and modifications of early electrical sound signals resulting in the mixing desk. Inevitably, over time all these components and inventions have had an affect on the way musician’s record music, the uses of music and the growing demands of the music consumers to attain music. These electronic inventions created the means for growth and development within the music industry opening a wide range of possibilities for the recording process. Although many inventions and ideas were yet to be discovered, early music and its uses had progressed from a means of confined entertainment within the household to a possible, world wide product with which Emile Berliner’s early duplication process played a large part when it came to distribution and portability of recorded music. As time passed, increasingly people were able to buy recorded music which would be played on a gramophone wherever it may be. Emile Berliner realized the market wanted a range of music which can be bought, stored and played at any given point, the money earning potential would be high and with the importance of his discoveries, decided to start ‘his very own’ brand of recorded music which up until today, with the changes and the new strains on the industry has been extremely successful with the famous dog and gramophone design of ‘His Masters Voice’ (HMV). Music was now, not only being used just for enjoyment or purely for entertainment but was now, being recorded, duplicated and distributed to consumers around the world who are able to replay music over and over and enjoy their collections when ever and most importantly where ever. The next major progression concerning music which would increase the needs of high quality equipment was the introduction of descriptive and respective music tracks within film. The years 1920-1928 were known to be the golden age of silent movies. Early movies were accompanied by music scores containing pieces usually played by an organist, pianist or an orchestra depending on the class of the theatre. Sound tracks however were introduced to cinema audiences around 1926-1927 even though technology to add sound to film was discovered in 1911 it took another 15 years or so to be introduced and implemented into movie productions. The use of music within film during this particular period was predominantly used to raise the attraction of early movie productions which would change forever after the opening of Pandora’s Box in 1927 and the increase of technical achievements which led Al-Jolson to ad-lib a few spoken words in ‘The Jazz Singer’. Recorded music for films then after became extremely successful within the movie industry and over the next few years Warner Bros. took control of this area (now a multi-billion pound industry) by producing ten all-talking films with accompanied sound tracks and scores leaving the silent movies on the shelf. This production process increasingly outlined the importance of having good quality sound systems to playback the music and sounds on film. Music will always essentially be a huge form of entertainment in many ways but now different music was being used for more reasons than originally supposed. With the on going growth of equipment and technology music became a money making product after the discovery of sound recording, music began to be used to compliment or help describe a visual performance rather than being an individual form of entertainment, it was now coinciding with other art forms and was boosting the popularity and profits of associated productions. With the discovery of magnetic media music will be promoted on a mass worldwide scale and allow the public and potential music buyers to listen to broadcasts over the air. The first radio broadcast which involved music was said to be in 1906 at Brant Rock MA, when Fessenden played his violin, sang a song and read a few verses from a bible into his wireless telephone on Christmas Eve 1906. It was classed as a broadcast because it was designed for more than one listener and was pre-announced rather than a one to one conversation. 1920 saw the first licensed radio broadcast, as Frank Conrad’s company was asked to go on air on a regular basis to send out music to the listeners and would sell radios to pay for the service. Radios were advertised in local newspapers to households and within a few years there were hundreds of stations entertaining thousands of people who had bought or built their own receivers. It was no longer, that an audience had to sit in their own home and manually operate a gramophone, no need to necessarily buy records from HMV and will no longer need to worry about play back time of records as the public could listen to the radio everyday, and tune in to their favorite radio stations free of charge. Growing factors underlined the importance of good quality equipment to further the success of music and the portability of music, which led to new discoveries of early formats and storage devices such as magnetic tape machines, cassettes tapes/players to audio cd’s. After the rubber and shellac records, which were the primary recording medium at the time, a new means for recording came about in 1934/35 when Joseph Begun of Germany built the first magnetic tape machine which was used for mobile radio broadcasting before creating the first consumer tape recorder which provided the ‘3M Company’ with a billion dollar industry. Magnetic tape machines became very popular storage and recording devices in radio stations and recording studios as they offer higher quality recording and longer continuous playback of recorded material, the most beneficial aspect of the invention of tape was its portability. Eventually two track tape machines were introduced which extended recording possibilities within the studio but magnetic tape was never used commercially by consumers until the release of the first compact audio-cassette tape in 1963 by The Phillips Company of the Netherlands. With a cheap and easy recording medium such as the cassette tape combined with a cassette tape player, It could be argued that this sparked the ever destructive and ongoing battle of music piracy. Taperecorders/players were sold with built in radios as standard and by the touch of a button it was possible torecord sounds and music straight from the radio. After Phillips had patented the cassette tape in 1965 and decided to make it free of charge all over the world, companies then started to design new portable recorders and players to compliment the compact size of the cassette tape. One of the popular models of tape players was the Sony Pressman which was a monaural tape recorder released in 1977. The next year in 1978 Sony founder and chief advisor Masaru Ibuka requested the general manger of the Tape Recorder Business Division to start work on a stereo based model of the earlier Sony Pressman which birthed the Sony TPS-L2 headphone stereo Walkman in 1979 that would completely chan ge the way consumers listen to music. Theyll take it everywhere with them, and they wont care about record functions. If we put a playback-only headphone stereo like this on the market, itll be a hit. What made the Sony Walkman such a big hit was the portability that it was offering to its consumers. Ever since the invention of the piano/organ, phonograph, gramophone, record players, wireless recorders and receivers, although, all mediums allowed the consumer to listen to music in various ways, none of which actually enabled the listener to become portable, ‘on the move’ to be able to listen to their material literally wherever they wanted. Recording and listening to music from this point onwards almost became a hobby for a generation of people who would listen to the radio to try and catch their favourite song to record to tape, allowing them to repeatedly replay the material and start a collection of stored music. Many types of storage formats have been introduced by this point but very few which are truly beneficial to the storage and quality of music mediums. After the magnetic media such as: wire, core memory, drum, card, tape, disk and OM disk came many floppy disk formats which played a great part in early computing storage formats. Different versions of optical mediums were introduced ‘optic data disk’ coming before Sony proposed a standard for the compact disk (CD) in 1980 but was followed by formats such as: DVD, HD-DVD, holographic, Blu-ray DVD and developments with OM disks. The introduction of optical mediums saw Sony’s standard CD to hit the very top in high quality recording and storage mediums. CD-R’s are a ‘write once, read many’ optical medium (WORM) which is a recordable version of the CD and holds a high level of compatibility with standard CD readers unlike CD-RW’s which can be overwritten many times but has a lower compatibility level with CD readers and the disks are slightly more expensive. CD’s became the most popular medium of music and data storage due to its capacity and ease of recording but there is one flaw in its design as after a life span of around 2 years it’s possible for the CD’s data to degrade with time showing a coloured dye as a result. CD’s hold a standard capacity of 700Mb where as the introduction of DVD’s upped the capacity to 4.1 GB but was mostly associated with movies projects which contain much larger files. CD’s are still the highest quality recording/storage medium to attain or store music on outside of a computers hard drive but with newer, smaller compressed formats such as MP3 on the market the option of buying a CD compared to a smaller and cheaper alternative looks bleak with time, so we see the CD taking a backseat to let newer recording and storage devices into the scene. Chapter 2 (A demanding society) In today’s society where consumers are demanding faster, cheaper and easier methods of gaining entertainment, they also demand a new outlook towards devices, gadgets and components with which to view or listen to their product. This chapter underlines the changes of which new technology has an effect, they way society and subcultures are shaped by technology and how technology is forced to develop and become more advanced to meet the needs and perceptions of its consumers. In recent years the ‘compact disk’ has ended the forty year reign of the twelve inch LP, with which came consequences for production, distribution and marketing, and in turn disks and tapes have been threatened by technologies which can deliver high quality sound via cable direct to potential consumers, eliminating the need for the already established pattern of product marketing and distribution. Although the invention of the phonograph and gramophones were considered important aspects in creating the a mass market for music and entertainment, â€Å"the record industry has been shaped by the need to cope with its volatile market so its established practices and institutions have been constantly undermined by technological innovations which not only offer new and better ways of doing things but, as we shall see, have generally had the effect of increasing the consumers choice at the expense of the industries ability to control its market†. (Scott, D. Martin, P. 1995 p.209) There are many important connections between technology, musical characteristics and social groups, and as it may be argued that the fundamental coordinates of a musical form are not determined by its social base, but each social group or subculture corresponds to certain acceptable genres. During the 1970’s and 1980’s the idea that the characteristics of a musical form could give life or influence to the social reality of a culture became more and more popular with incorporated sociological categories such as class, ethnicity and importantly age. â€Å"In 1987 John Shepard extended this type of analysis to gender, arguing that different voice types or timbres in popular music gave expression to different kinds of gender identities†. (Clayton, M. Herbert, T. Middleton, R. 2003, p. 7, p. 14) The 1990’s saw different factors concerning the cultural study of music and the analytical evidence with particular social categories such as, class, ethnicity, age, subculture and counterculture. This had been replaced with a more embracing and persistent concern with social identity. With the concept of youth culture, it’s assumed that teenagers share similar leisure interests and pursuits and were involved in some kind of revolt against their parents and elders. The arrival of youth culture is said to be linked with the growth and increased incomes of early working class youths which allowed greater spending power and the means to express their individual interests and styles which caused large markets to develop more interest for the youth culture, most notably resulting in music and fashion. It’s with particular music styles, genres and clothing styles and labels that predominantly place our identities within a culture or subculture, which technology helps shape and create aspirations in a similar way. â€Å"Teenage culture is a contradictory mixture of the authentic and the manufactured: it is an area of self-expression for the young and a lush grazing ground for the commercial providers†. (Hall, S. Whannel, P. 1964, p.) â€Å"The compressed file format known as MP3 is at the centre of debate towards file-sharing and digital downloading and is thought to be downgrading towards the level of audible quality in music. Yet the mp3 is also a cultural artefact, apsychoacoustic technology that literally playsits listeners. Being a container technology type for recorded sound, the mp3 proves that the quality of ‘portability’ is central to the history of auditory representation and shows that digital audio culture works according to logics somewhat dissimilar from digital visual culture†. (Jonathan Sterne, 2006. New Media and Society, Vol. 8, No. 5, 825-842 DOI: 10.1177/1461444806067737) Today’s young generation aren’t so aware of the historical factors and important issues which lead to the advances, demands and uses of audible quality music but more so, on the social aspects of consumption, portability and quantity of music. A spokes person for the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, Terrance O’Neill-Joyce, argues that: â€Å"The problem is not with the actual technology of MP3, which he believes is being effectively used by many music producers, but rather the ineffective means of securing remuneration for artists. It’s a case of technology outstripping legislation and a lack of proper commercial framework being established as of yet† (Shuker. 2001 p. 65) MP3 is a technology encoding, recorded sound, so that it takes up less storage space than it would otherwise. The size of an MP3 file makes it practical to transfer high –quality music files over the internet and store them on a computers hard drive, where as CD quality tracks take longer to download and transfer. The MP3 file has become very popular as a way to distribute and access music even though there has been enormous debate over the economic and cultural implications of this new technology. For the typical music consumer the MP3 file is considered a blessing as anyone can access a wide range and varieties of music mostly for free as well as having the option to compile their own albums of single tracks from their favorite artists without having to acquire the whole album itself. For artists and producers the MP3 allows them to distribute their music possibly to a world wide audience without tackling the political processes and mediation of the music industry. For mainstream artists on major record labels the MP3 raises concerns of profit loss from consumers due to illegal downloads which are free of charge and easy to attain. On the other hand for strictly internet distributed music producers and publishers the MP3 opens up many opportunities for smaller, more innovative labels and companies. (Shuker. 2001, Pg 65) Each new medium of technology, communication or entertainment that’s introduced to a mainstream audience creates drastic changes towards the way in which we experience music, this also has implications for how we relate to and consume music. The changes and advances in technological recording equipment open, both constraints and opportunities relating to the organisation process and production of music, while the developments within musical instrumentation allow the emergence of ‘new sounds’. Most important of all, each new recording format or device used for transmission inevitably alters the previously established process of music production and consumption; they also raise questions about authorship and the legal status of music as a property and the ongoing battle with piracy and profit loss. Napster software was introduced in 1999, designed as a search engine, communication portal and file-sharing software that facilitated the sharing process by granting users access to all other Napster and the mp3 files they choose to share. Within a few months, transfers of music files using Napster reached millions per day, and at its peak, it was estimated that as many as sixty million people were using the site. â€Å"Whereas Napster requires users to first log onto a central server to access other users MP3 files, these newer networks allow direct user-to-user (P2P) connections involving multiple file types. These innovations expand the universe of file sharing activity and make it virtually impossibly to track users of the files they choose to share† (Garofalo, 2003 cited in Shuker, 2008 pg, 23) Digital distribution continuously threatened the music business and the control of music by the record companies. This method also lowers manufacturing and distribution costs while putting pressure on marketing and other aspects of the process. With the industry failing to stop illegal downloads and P2P (peer-to-peer) distribution of recorded music over the last five years, record labels have finally decided to adapt their business to suit the way its consumers get hold on their music. It’s becoming more and more apparent that albums and artists are making very little or no money in the music industry because of the lack of physical CD sales as the majority of money spent during the traditional production process goes towards many aspects such as the production, promotion, duplication and distribution of a product. Mainly within the music business P2P technologies are a positive means for consumers and creative artists because all costs of production, promotion, marketing and distribution are dramatically lowered. These new technologies and approaches to digital distribution means old and new artists are able to earn more profits through selling singles and albums through P2P networks as the production process costs a fraction of the album or single. Because they can charge less they earn and sell more which means more artists will benefit financially and the industries broad range of music will receive a wider market to distribute to. â€Å"It is easy to see that we are living in a time of rapid and radical social change, it is much less easy to come to terms with the fact that such change will, without doubt, affect the nature of those academic disciplines that both reflect our society and help to shape it† (Hawkes. 2003. p.7) The growing concern with the music industry today is focused heavily on the affects of digital downloads and the fall of physical album/record sales sold in high street music shops and online stores. The debate continues as sales in the US as well as the UK have fallen due to a number of factors involving the growth of technology and the way we consume our entertainment. According to recent industry researchers, figures show that today’s music industry (UK), has suffered a drop of up to 11% of record sales in 2007, but download sales boosted the singles market by nearly 30% last year as single sales increased from 67m in 2006 to 86.6m in 2007, up 29.3%. Despite there being best-selling albums from artists like Amy Winehouse and Leona Lewis, only 138.1 million albums were sold in 2007, compared with 154.7 million in 2006. Amy Winehouses Back to Black was the most popular album of 2007, with 1.85 million copies sold. Leona Lewis debut album Spirit came second, even though it was only released in November. Music industry body the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) put the 10.8% fall down to copyright theft and difficult retail conditions. Having the option of album unbundling is also a problem as consumers are able to select which tracks they want to download from each album, this means albums are not being sold as whole units and says a lot to the artists themselves about what their audience wants. Music Industry Analyst Michael McGuire of Gartner Research told Agency France-Press news agency: â€Å"It comes back to consumers being in complete control of their media experience†. Mr McGuire said fans were sending artists a message: â€Å"While you may have put a lot of thought into the sequence of the album, I only like these three songs†. BPI chief executive Geoff Taylor said: â€Å"The UK market has shown considerable resilience in recent years while global recorded music markets have declined.† Recording companies have a major influence on the music we listen to and shape what’s known as popular music within society. The term ‘popular music’ defies a precise straightforward definition and is usually over looked and the understanding of the term is taken for granted. To fully understand the term popular music it’s necessary to address the general field of popular culture within cultural studies. (See: Studying Popular Music Culture, Tim Wall). In this instance I refer the word popular music from the historical term for popular as the ‘ordinary people’, these days the meaning of the term has expanded, ‘all music is popular music’ meaning ‘music that is popular with someone’. â€Å"Young peoples musical activities whatever their cultural background or social position, rest on a substantial and sophisticated body of knowledge about popular music. Most young people have a clear understanding of its different genres, and an ability to hear and place sounds in terms of their histories, influences and sources. Young musicians and audiences have no hesitation about making and justifying judgements of meaning and value† (Willis. 1990: 59 cited in Shuker. p.98) The music industry is big business, and international multi-billion dollar enterprise historically centred in the United States with the United Kingdom making a significant artistic contribution to the industry and developing trends as well as the emergence of Japanese media technologies playing a major part in the music industry for its commercial designs of gadgets and devices. Recording companies are the most important part of the music industry and fall into two main groups: ‘the major’ international labels and the smaller ‘independent’ labels who’s structures and operating processes take on a similar role, blurring the distinctions between the two. These differences I will try to evaluate later on in chapter 3. The major labels are renowned for sourcing young talent, recording, promoting, marketing and distributing his/her music which has a powerful effect on the popular consumer, cultures and subcultures due to the image associated with that particular genre or style of music which is marketed, but its future is usually determined by the listener themselves. â€Å"For after the commercial power of the record companies has been recognised, after the persuasive sirens of the radio acknowledged, after the recommendations of the music press noted, it is finally those who buy the records, dance to the rhythm and live to the beat who demonstrate, despite the determined conditions of its production, the wider potential of pop† (Chambers, 1985: Introduction cited in Shuker 2001 p.23) Consumers are becoming less influenced by the major record labels with the help from the internet as consumers have more freedom to discover new genres and styles which are delivered in new ways. Record labels will always have a certain level of influence to its popular markets but now its the customer who decides on what they really like and want to listen to without feeling outside of the ‘popular music’ category. â€Å"I think there are many benefits for a musician not being signed to a label. I’ve seen first hand, from my experience at major labels, where they will sign up and coming artists b

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Death Penalty in Canada Essay -- Capital Punishment, canadian stud

The most severe of all sentences: death. Also known as capital punishment, this is the most severe form of punishment in the courts as it is requires law enforcement officers to kill the offender. Our past has left us thinking that if someone steals from us, we should steal from them, or if someone yells at us, we should yell at them. But does there ever come a point where if someone kills somebody, we should kill them? Today, there is a large controversy over the death penalty, whether it helps society or not, and if it is morally right. When we find someone guilty of murder and sentence them to death; does that not make murderers out of us? Is the death penalty an unnecessary punishment, or is it now a necessity in the battles of crime? With the increase in crime and violence in our society, how does the death penalty affect a North American family? Canada’s history with this punishment has been stable for several years. In the late 1800’s until the 1960’s, all murders in Canada were promised a death of hanging. Between these dates, there were 710 Canadians murdered. Many of them were found to be innocent years after their death. The last execution in Canada was on December 11, 1962 when 2 men were hanged in Toronto, Ontario. It wasn’t until July 14, 1976 that the House of Commons passed a Bill that was to abolish capital punishment from the Canadian Criminal Code, and replacing it with a mandatory life sentence for all murderers. Since then, the Canadian government has seen the murder rate increase, and has struggled in the decision to bring back capital punishment, although recent studies suggest that there are four major issues that should make governments stay away from that decisi... ...iety understands the price, so why do we keep doing it? Like anything else in this world, it’s a form of insurance that the criminal will never commit another crime again. (Capital Punishment) As children, we grow up and learn that murder is wrong, but it is still done every day. Dealing with capital punishment, leads to many questions that many citizens even in Canada cannot find an answer to. Is killing somebody for committing a crime right? I personally believe that a victim on death row should be there if they actually deserve to be. Depending on the situation and the crime they committed, the death penalty eliminates evil in our countries. But can people make mistakes, can people be forgiven and change? Using the death penalty is breaking one of the Ten Commandments, so at the end of the day is it right? Does one life deserve another?

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Events that lead to the Civil War :: American History

Events that lead to the Civil War The secession of the southern states was a long simmering conflict. The secession of the southern could have been avoided by both the North and the South could have come up with a compromise. The secession of the southern states inevitable because the South knew that the North wanted to end slavery and the South wanted slavery because it was their way of life. To have slaves was their way of life style, both the North and the South couldn?t have come up with a compromise and agree with it. The three most important events that lead to the secession of the southern states and the civil war were the Wilmot proviso, California state hood, Fugitive slave law, and Uncle Tom?s cabin. Wilmot?s proviso it proposed western territories are closed to slavery. The Wilmot proviso it was created by David Wilmot in 1846. Wilmot proviso it supported the containment and destruction of slavery. The north feared that the south would become too powerful in congress. The south opposed Wilmot proviso because they need slavery to survive economically. The south feared that the north would take over the south. The California state hood was when California became part of the union. The union said the only way they can be part of the union is if they enforced the fugitive slave law. The fugitive slave law was passed by congress into making people turn in fugitive slaves. The law it effected the North and the South in some ways. It effected the North into creating the Underground Railroad and violence to free the slaves. These laws made the north pass the personal liberty laws. These laws effected the south by making slave owners threatened to secede/withdraw for the union. Uncle Tom?s Cabin it was a book that was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe on June 5, 1852. The book was criticized by the south the characters were being stereotyped and the plot was melodramatic. The north?s reaction to the book was they increased their protests against slavery and the fugitive slave law. The south?s reaction was they criticized the book as an attack on the south. The south didn?t like the book because they thought that it was an attack on them and slavery. These are some of the events that lead to the Civil war and the secession of the southern states.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Hobbies: Fruit and Idle Mind Essay

Hobbies are leisure time activities. They are gardening, reading books, stamp collecting, learning musical instrument such as Veena, Violin, Guitar etc., painting, photography, bee-keeping, poultry-farming, and writing stories or novels. Hobbies are for recreation and relief from routine, stereo typed and monotonous work. They help us to develop our manual skill. They kindle one’s imagination and make one give vent to one’s latent talents. They make brisk and some of them benefit us monetarily. Everyone should have a hobby. W.H.Davies, the poet writes ‘What is this life full of care, we have no time to stand and stare’. Further an idle mind is a devil’s workshop. One must choose a hobby according to one’s tastes. They keep one engaged. They educate and help us learn many things. Some times hobbies become one’s full time profession and in a high position. Hobbies make us brisk both physically and mentally. Hobbies like stamp collection and coin collection make us rich also. So everyone should have a valuable hobby. My hobby is gardening. My father has constructed a house in one ground, there is half a ground place for gardening around the house. There is a well at the back of the house. My father advised me one day that an idle mind devil’s workshop and I should educate me and benefit me in future. He asked me to look after the garden. After my school hours, I engage myself in gardening. I will do work such as purchasing proper seeds, sowing, weeding, watching the plant, pruning, and making channels for water. This hobby has taught me the features of the plant, and their habits and my teacher would give me suggestions as times about it. Now I have grown trees such as mango, neem, coconut, banana, guava, jack and pomegranate, plants like brinjal, tomato, ladies finger and flower plants like Rose, Jasmine, and Kanakambaram. I usually sell the fruits and vegetables to my neighbours. They gives me money. I save it in small savings scheme. My father has said that it would be helpful for my higher studies. I am happy, doing it.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Paying Collegiate Athletes Essay

A college is an educational institution, where students live together under a common set of rules. A college can be said to be a part of the university, which lack degree-awarding powers. Athletes can be said to be a collection of sport events. These sport events involve running, throwing and jumping, and can also be referred to as track or field athletes (Arlott . J, 1975). Athletics is very important in colleges and universities, where its benefits are undeniable. Anyone who is involved in athletics benefits. Athletics as sports teach the college athletes skills and experiences that cannot be taught in the classroom. These same skills are extremely helpful when students are looking for a career. Students who hold positions in the sport’s clubs acquire leadership skills. In sports students participate as a team. They support each other in order to succeed. They are able to learn and practice teamwork, which will assist them in undertaking other activities in their lives. Participation in a sporting event requires the dedication of the participant. Through sport events, students develop a sense of dedication to what they do. The desire to win drives the students to work very hard. They put aside their time and energy to take part in athletics. They later learn how to create desire for something and work hard to attain it. Collegiate athletics are found in numerous countries of the world. College athletics in the United States have the greatest impact and popularity globally. This is due to a large extent of participation. Due to the great importance and benefits that the college athletics offer, sport events continue to grow. There has been a general progression of athletic organizations over time. In recent years, a debate over payment of college athletes has raised concerns. The debate argues whether college athletes should be paid or not. Athletes do not receive any compensation even after the instatement of the collegiate athletics. There has been pressure for college athletes to be paid. On the other hand, another group of people feel that college athletes should not be paid. There are reasons that support the view against payment of college students. More voices are advocating for payment, with convincing reasons. The reasons that support payment of collegiate athletes will be discussed. Implementation of such a move would greatly benefit all the sports participants in colleges. Discussion College athletes need to be paid. One major reason for this is due to the great economic impact that the college athletics create. For example, in the US, college athletics are said to contribute greatly to the American economy. The colleges spend a huge amount of money on their college organizations. The athletes programs in turn generate a large amount of revenue. For example in the sale of tickets and merchandise it would be very fair therefore for college athletes who are major participants in generating revenues, to get a share of it. The athletes who help colleges make a lot of money do not get even the smallest share of it. Some look at this as students’ exploitation. They argue that if colleges benefit or make profit off of student athletes then the athletes should be paid since they helped the college make a lot of profit. In the world over, people believe that one should be paid for the work. Just like an employer, employees are paid according to their productivity. It would be very correct therefore to pay college athletes for their productivity in the sport events. In addition to profits that colleges earn from the sports or games themselves schools officials make a lot of money by marketing their team players. For example in USA, college students J. J Redick and Adam Morrison Jerseys have been sold all over the country, bringing in a lot of profits to the college. However, Morrison and Redick do not benefit from the profits earned. This is because they need to protect their status ( It’s an observation that college officials have no problem making a lot of money for themselves while exploiting ht well known college players. Well known players have their basketball or football jerseys dominate a market. The team officials make money from the sales, while the athlete himself gets nothing â€Å"millions of dollars are made off of video game and jersey sales every year (Jean. M. 2001 ). The players create great marketing opportunities and do not see any money made from the profits. The quality of play in a game is very critical for a future career. Paying college athletes helps in improving the quality of play they display during the major college sports. These games require skills and experience for a player to play well. Students who join professional sport clubs without experience and skills may end up being put on the bench. This limits their ability to gain required experience. This may be as a result of lack of payment if a student plays in a college team. This may ruin the student’s future sports career. By paying the college athletes, the students are encouraged to play for the college teams for a much longer time. This assists them in acquiring the much needed skills and experience for a future career in sports. Some students are very talented and it only requires practice to perfect their skills. This will also improve the college game because skilled players can remain for much longer. It is considered wrong, for schools to make money off of players, while the players do not benefit at all. When the players are paid, the quality of the college games is improved. This is because it becomes possible to keep borderline professional athletes in the involved colleges. The players can get more money at a professional level due to the already developed skills. Games coaches or officials sometimes demand a lot of time from the players in order to practice. This compromises on the time the players would work or maintain a job. Players who need to support themselves in order to make a living find themselves in a difficult situation. They are ton between participating in the games or working. If the players are paid, they can be able to put aside the required time for practice and participation in the games. It would make it easy for players to become committed in sports while at the same time earning a living. Gaming companies are given the right to use school names and numbers by colleges. The companies use these names and numbers at a fee to the respective college. The players have every right to enjoy money that is made by use of their names and numbers in the college. Players work very hard in sports and games (Athletic Journal. 1987). They commit their time to rain and play at the expense of doing their homework. Though they may balance between the two their fellow classmates who do not participate in games have more time to study than the players. They dedicate their time and energy in ensuring high quality games. Any hardwork and dedication that a person portrays need to be appreciated and recognized. Paying college athletes would fit so well in recognizing the student’s efforts in the growth of the game. In addition, to recognizing their efforts, players require to be motivated in doing their training and playing. Motivation encourages players to be determined even when they lose in a game (Charles. E. 1954). They keep on the faith and hope that there is always room for improving their skills and quality of the game. Motivation is a great ingredient towards success of players. Sometimes players may lose miserably to another team. The players may become discouraged to play since they may seem to believe that there are no benefits in their participation. The sports officials thereby step in to encourage them and train them to rectify former mistakes that they committed in the past matches. The players require more than just words in order to keep working on their skills. The need to motivate college students to work harder and improve their skills boils down to some way of rewarding them. One of the best ways to reward and encourage players would be by paying them. Any game event exposes the players to risks. One of the major risks that players are exposed to is injury. Players when in the pitch are involved in defending their team against losing while at the same time maximizing their chances of winning. This demand some form of aggressiveness to succeed. Aggressiveness means quick movements, tricky play (skills) and effective defense actions. When a player is doing all this, accidents may occur that lead to body injuries. These injuries may require intensive medical attention and may be very expensive to pay for the medical services. For example some players get fractured bones, broken joints and tissue damage. Some may even have their body organs impaired. Medication and healing of such body ailments may be too expensive for the players especially where no medical cover takes care of such accidents. The medical expenses may become an economic burden to the player and family. Paying the players, would therefore play a very big role in easing up of such a burden. It makes it easy for students to get the right medication if injured. Any college trains students on how to acquire skills and knowledge and apply them. Teamwork creates a spirit of working together towards success. This spirit is built by organizations and sport clubs in a college. The sport teams and clubs give the students a spirit to be one to work together and to support each other. A good example is the support students give their own team when playing. There is cheering and encouragement from their fellow students who are spectating. Winning a game gives the college students a spirit of victory or conquering especially if the team wins against a well re-known stronger team. This kind of spirit need to be maintained and encouraged in colleges. Maintaining the quality of game through players in order to keep this spirit burning needs a sacrifice. A sacrifice on the sports organization’s or officials may clearly translate into paying of the players. The spirit lives on. Colleges appreciate and recognize good players during the sports events. College students spend a lot of money on ticket in order to go and watch their own team play as well as showing their solidarity with the team. College athletes encourage community participation. The community that surrounds the college joins students in major sports events and offers their support. The community identifies the college team as belonging to them. Students’ parents come in big numbers to support their children in the sports events (Patricia. A. 2007). The students and the community are able to interact with each other, which creates good relationship between the students and the neighborhood. This promotes harmony and peaceful living in and outside the college. Supporting college athletes consequently results to support of community participation. Paying athletes is the greatest form of support that the players can get. Lack of community participation affects the relationship of students and the community itself. Community participation also encourages community service. The students are able to develop community service programs and later undertake activities that help the community in which they live in for example, cleaning exercises, organizing community programs funds rising and even providing support to disaster victims. This is a great way in which students can show support for the community. As earlier stated, community service will be developed in students, if they have a chance to interact and identify the needs of the community. Interaction through events offers a chance for the students to create a good relationship with the community. One way to encourage community service will be through support of college athletics . Paying the students/players may be just one of the effective ways to support athletics. Sometimes an argument is given that college athletes get scholarships. Therefore they have already been paid for their participation and efforts in games. However, other students benefit from scholarships without necessarily participating in the games. Paying college athletes will be a great way to promote justice in the student fraternity. Players feel that they have a right to be rewarded for their efforts. This may even encourage talented students who are discouraged to participate to change their mind and utilize their talents in athletics. In conclusion, college athletics are very important. These games should be given the seriousness they deserve. The players on the other hand need to be motivated for their hardwork and dedication. They deserve to be rewarded. Exploitation of college players by the officials or companies need to be stopped. All these measures require payment to the players and players will feel that justice is done to them. The spirit of college athletics will continue growing and so the future career of players.